Table 2

Relationship of serum 25(OH)D levels to incident type 2 diabetes among postmenopausal women in the Women’s Health Initiative (N = 5,262)

25(OH)D quartiles (nmol/L)25(OH)D levels
<34.734.7–47.847.9–64.2>64.2P*Continuous<50 nmol/L50–< 75 nmol/L≥75 nmol/LP*
N1,2631,2951,2951,2875,1402,7411,668731
Model 1Reference1.15 (0.73–1.79)0.85
(0.55–1.32)0.78
(0.48–1.26)0.1950.98
(0.95–1.02)Reference0.79
(0.55–1.13)0.86
(0.53–1.40)0.355
Model 2§Reference1.15
(0.73–1.80)0.87
(0.56–1.35)0.78
(0.47–1.29)0.1950.98
(0.95–1.02)Reference0.80
(0.56–1.15)0.86
(0.52–1.42)0.355
Model 3Reference1.25
(0.78–1.99)1.00
(0.64–1.57)1.05
(0.62–1.76)0.9351.01
(0.97–1.05)Reference0.89
(0.61–1.30)1.14
(0.68–1.90)0.873
  • Data are odds ratio (95% CI) unless otherwise indicated.

  • *P for linear trend across quartiles.

  • †5 nmol/L increase.

  • ‡Adjusted for age and ethnicity.

  • §Adjusted for age, ethnicity, latitude of clinical center, month of blood draw, and WHI study indicators.

  • ∥Adjusted for age, ethnicity, latitude of clinical center, month of blood draw, WHI study indicators, BMI, hypertension, fiber intake, magnesium intake, and physical activity.