Table 3

Relationship of serum 25(OH)D levels (categorical) to type 2 diabetes incidence by subgroups

25(OH)D quartiles (nmol/L)25(OH)D levels (nmol/L)25(OH)D (nmol/L)
<34.734.7–47.847.9–64.2≥64.2P*<5050–75≥75P*5-unit increasesP*
BMI
 < 25Ref.0.70 (0.22–2.20)1.26 (0.46–3.49)0.37 (0.10–1.33)0.04Ref.1.21 (0.52–2.82)0.70 (0.20–2.50)0.480.96 (0.89–1.03)0.29
 25–< 30Ref.2.10 (0.91–4.85)0.60 (0.22–1.65)1.72 (0.74–4.03)Ref.0.61 (0.29–1.29)1.15 (0.51–2.60)1.02 (0.96–1.08)
 ≥30Ref.1.05 (0.59–1.89)1.12 (0.63–1.99)1.04 (0.54–2.03)Ref.0.99 (0.60–1.61)1.37 (0.67–2.82)1.02 (0.97–1.07)
Ethnicity
 WhiteRef.1.05 (0.65–1.69)0.99 (0.62–1.60)0.83 (0.49–1.41)0.22Ref.0.90 (0.61–1.34)0.99 (0.58–1.70)0.200.99 (0.95–1.03)0.43
 BlackRef.4.31 (1.12–16.54)0.05 (0.01–0.49)0.27 (0.02–3.09)Ref.0.03 (0.00–0.24)0.33 (0.03–4.08)0.99 (0.87–1.13)
 HispanicRef.1.86 (0.25–13.85)1.02 (0.25–4.28)1.21 (0.12–12.65)Ref.0.75 (0.20–2.86)2.18 (0.23–20.33)1.04 (0.91–1.18)
 OtherRef.0.34 (0.04–2.74)0.19 (0.03–1.24)3.21 (0.58–17.83)Ref.1.90 (0.35–10.42)8.65 (1.54–48.44)1.18 (1.00–1.40)
CaD
 PlaceboRef.1.08 (0.56–2.08)0.71 (0.36–1.41)1.10 (0.53–2.26)0.77Ref.0.78 (0.43–1.41)1.23 (0.59–2.56)0.821.01 (0.96–1.07)0.99
 ActiveRef.1.25 (0.64–2.42)1.16 (0.60–2.24)1.16 (0.57–2.33)Ref.0.99 (0.57–1.73)1.19 (0.55–2.56)1.01 (0.96–1.06)
  • Data are odds ratio (95% CI) unless otherwise indicated.

  • Model adjusted for age, ethnicity, latitude of clinical center, month of blood draw, WHI study indicators, BMI, hypertension, fiber intake, magnesium intake, and physical activity.

  • *P value for interaction.

  • †Combined black, Hispanic, and other race/ethnicity because some cells contained zero.