Table 1

Baseline demographic and biochemical characteristics of type 2 diabetic patients with and without progression to microalbuminuria

OverallNormoalbuminuriaMicroalbuminuriaP value
n738491247
Male, n (%)337 (45.6)228 (46.4)109 (44.3)0.116
Education (≤6 years), n (%)376 (50.9)230 (46.8)146 (59.1)0.034
Age at diabetes onset (years)53.6 ± 8.653.7 ± 8.153.4 ± 8.70.697
Diabetes duration at recruitment (years)2.9 ± 2.62.9 ± 2.73.0 ± 3.00.453
Smoking status, n (%)0.095
 Nonsmoker545 (73.8)365 (74.3)180 (72.9)
 Ex-smoker53 (7.2)41 (8.4)12 (4.5)
 Current smoker140 (19.0)85 (17.3)55 (22.6)
BMI (kg/m2)25.1 ± 3.625.0 ± 3.825.0 ± 3.90.871
Waist circumference (cm)86.6 ± 10.488.5 ± 11.186.5 ± 10.30.076
HOMA-IR3.7 ± 3.13.5 ± 3.24.0 ± 3.20.026
Urine ACR (mg/g)8.9 ± 8.07.4 ± 7.012.7 ± 8.2<0.001
Triglycerides (mg/dL)198.8 ± 239.0187.5 ± 145.7192.1 ± 130.20.623
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)47.3 ± 13.248.4 ± 13.349.4 ± 12.90.327
HbA1c (%)8.15 ± 1.868.01 ± 1.828.42 ± 1.940.010
Hypertension, n (%)407 (58.3)254 (51.7)153 (61.9)0.141
sBP (mmHg)128.7 ± 15.8127 ± 15.0130 ± 17.30.094
dBP (mmHg)80.0 ± 9.779.5 ± 9.380.9 ± 10.30.083
Medication use at baseline, n (%)
 Statins1915 (3.0)4 (1.4)0.188
 Sulfonylurea627406 (82.6)221 (89.4)0.878
 Biguanide572369 (75.1)203 (82.1)0.863
 Thiazolidinedione7851 (10.3)27 (10.9)0.923
 α-Glucosidase inhibitor3625 (5.0)11 (4.4)0.853
 Meglitinide1611 (2.2)5 (2.0)0.896
 ACEI/ARB245155 (31.5)90 (36.4)0.485
 CCB196126 (25.6)70 (28.3)0.426
 β-Blocker14288 (17.9)54 (21.8)0.708
 Diuretic8555 (11.2)30 (12.1)0.473
  • Data are n (%) or mean ± SD unless otherwise indicated. sBP, systolic blood pressure; dBP, diastolic blood pressure; CCB, calcium channel blocker.