Table 2

Cox proportional hazards models for progression to microalbuminuria*

Univariate HRP valueMultivariable HRP value
Sex (male/female)0.80 (0.62–1.03)0.0900.96 (0.69–1.34)0.826
Education (≤6 years/>6 years)1.32 (1.02–1.70)0.0311.36 (1.00–1.83)0.045
Age at diabetes onset (years)1.01 (1.00–1.02)0.0480.99 (0.97–1.01)0.448
Diabetes duration at recruitment (years)1.02 (1.01–1.03)0.0331.01 (0.96–1.06)0.591
Smoking status
 Ex-smoker/nonsmoker0.52 (0.29–0.94)0.0300.56 (0.30–1.05)0.073
 Current smoker/nonsmoker1.11 (0.82–1.50)0.4821.09 (0.76–1.56)0.634
BMI (kg/m2)1.00 (0.96–1.03)0.966
Waist circumference (cm)0.99 (0.98–1.00)0.2460.98 (0.97–1.00)0.070
Urine ACR (mg/g)1.06 (1.04–1.07)<0.0011.06 (1.04–1.06)<0.001
Triglycerides (mg/dL)1.00 (0.99–1.00)0.417
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)1.00 (0.99–1.04)0.334
Hypertension (yes/no)1.27 (0.98–1.65)0.0641.39 (1.05–1.83)0.020
HbA1c (%)1.57 (1.30–1.89)<0.0011.26 (1.09–1.43)0.026
HOMA-IR
 Quartile 2/Quartile 11.41 (0.97–2.06)0.0681.37 (0.93–2.02)0.110
 Quartile 3/Quartile 11.68 (1.16–2.44)0.0051.66 (1.12–2.47)0.011
 Quartile 4/Quartile 11.73 (1.21–2.47)0.0021.76 (1.20–2.59)0.003
  • Data are HR (95% CI).

  • *The covariates used in Cox proportional hazards models were baseline demographics and biomedical markers.

  • †The multivariate HRs were derived from a stepwise proportional hazards regression model.