Table 1

Summary of cohort studies evaluating the association between DR and all-cause mortality and/or CV events (nonfatal and fatal) in patients with type 2 and type 1 diabetes

Author, yearFollow-up (years)Population* (N)DR evaluationAge (years)Men (%)A1C test (%)Smoking (%)TC (mg/dL)SBP (mmHg)DBP (mmHg)Outcome(s) (n events)
Type 2 diabetes
 Sasaki, 1989 (19)9.41,939 JapaneseNA53.062NANANANANAAll-cause mortality (503)
 Hanis, 1993 (16)8.0321 Mexican AmericansDirect and indirect ophthalmoscopy and fundus photography55.03710.820.320814380All-cause mortality (67)
 Miettinen, 1996 (7)7.01,059 FinnishOphthalmoscopy after mydriasis58.0549.718.0258NANACVD death or nonfatal myocardial infarction (255)
 Forsblom, 1998 (20)9.0131 EuropeansDirect ophthalmoscopy and angiography57.5519.923.524315486All-cause mortality (38)
 Klein, 1999 (4)16.01,370 AmericansIndirect ophthalmoscopy and fundus photography66.646.49.614.2NA14779All-cause mortality (1,052)
 Kim, 2002 (21)2.3365 Koreans after PCIDirect and indirect ophthalmoscopy60.564NA34.0NANANACVD death (5)
 Ono, 2002 (22)11.6223 Japanese after CABGIndirect ophthalmoscopy, fundus photography, and angiography60.475NA50.0192NANAAll-cause mortality (75)
 Rius Riu, 2003 (23)6.3176 SpanishNA54.036.47.221.922614477Fatal and nonfatal CVD (28)
 Gimeno-Orna, 2006 (24)8.0458 SpanishDirect and indirect ophthalmoscopy65.0407.811.721714579All-cause mortality (93)
 Cheung, 2007 (25)7.81,617 AmericansFundus photography60.047NA16.0207NANAStroke (75)
 Cheung, 2007 (26)7.81,524 AmericansFundus photography60.048NA17.0210NANAFatal and nonfatal CVD (209)
 Lövestam-Adrian, 2007 (27)10.0363 SwedishFundus photography and indirect ophthalmoscopy54.0648.1NANA14685All-cause mortality (99)
 Juutilainen, 2007 (28)18.0824 FinnishIndirect ophthalmoscopy58.04810.016.025315186CVD death (558)
 Tong, 2007 (29)3.44,416 ChineseDirect and indirect ophthalmoscopy57.642.57.713.020813477All-cause mortality (110)
 Cheung, 2008 (30)9.01,021 AmericansFundus photography60.0476.644.0208NANAHeart failure (106)
 Liew, 2009 (31)12.0199 AustraliansFundus photography>49NANANANANANACVD deaths (32)
 Gimeno-Orna, 2009 (32)6.7458 SpanishDirect and indirect ophthalmoscopy65.0407.8NA22014579Fatal and nonfatal CVD (176)
Type 1 diabetes
 Klein, 1999 (4)16.0966 AmericansIndirect ophthalmoscopy and fundus photography29.351.410.824.6NA12579All-cause mortality (136)
 Weis, 2001 (33)14.0147 AustraliansDirect and indirect ophthalmoscopy32.35610.819.0205128.377All-cause mortality (28)
 Torffvit, 2005 (34)12.0462 SwedishFundus photography and ophthalmoscopy37.056.78.5NANA14180Nonfatal CVD (70)
 Soedamah-Muthu, 2008 (5)7.02,787 EuropeansFundus photography32.16508.4NA20012276All-cause mortality (102)
  • CABG, coronary artery bypass grafting; CVD, CV disease; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; SBP, systolic blood pressure; NA, not available; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention; TC, total cholesterol.

  • *Included all patients who completed the follow-up.