Table 1

Baseline characteristics by diabetes management

Diabetes managementInsulinOHADiet aloneP value
n3261,750463
Age (years)62 (10)65 (10)65 (10)<0.0001
Male, n (%)184 (56)952 (54)251 (54)0.8
BMI (kg/m2)23 (4)24 (4)25 (4)<0.0001
Duration of diabetes (years)13.0 (7.7–19.1)7.2 (3.3–12.1)3.5 (1.0–7.6)<0.0001
HbA1c (%)8.1 (1.5)7.6 (1.3)6.7 (0.8)<0.0001
FPG (mmol/L)8.77 (3.16)8.27 (2.78)7.22 (1.78)<0.0001
Serum creatinine (μmol/L)71 (27)71 (27)71 (18)0.8
Proteinuria, n (%)58 (18)240 (14)48 (10)0.01
Diabetic retinopathy, n (%)140 (43)205 (12)20 (4)<0.0001
Diabetic nephropathy, n (%)66 (20)220 (13)36 (8)<0.0001
Diabetic neuropathy, n (%)104 (32)176 (10)20 (4)<0.0001
Diabetes medications, n (%)
 Sulfonylurea27 (8)1,420 (81)0 (0)<0.0001
 α-Glycosidase inhibitor88 (27)748 (43)0 (0)<0.0001
 Biguanide37 (11)317 (18)0 (0)<0.0001
 Thiazolidinedione9 (3)119 (7)0 (0)<0.0001
 Insulin326 (100)0 (0)0 (0)
Family history of diabetes, n (%)153 (47)731 (42)155 (33)0.0003
Complications of other cardiovascular risk factors, n (%)
 Hypertension156 (48)983 (56)334 (72)<0.0001
 Dyslipidemia132 (40)953 (54)260 (56)<0.0001
 History of smoking146 (45)731 (42)182 (39)0.3
Family history of cardiovascular diseases, n (%)
 Coronary artery disease38 (12)198 (11)54 (12)0.96
 Stroke71 (22)360 (21)95 (21)0.9
  • Data are mean (SD) or n (%); duration of diabetes data are median (interquartile range). BMI was calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg, or therapy with antihypertensive agents. Dyslipidemia was defined as total cholesterol level ≥5.7 mmol/L, fasting triglyceride level ≥1.7 mmol/L, or therapy with antilipidemic agents.