Table 1

Characteristics of 13 prospective cohort studies of magnesium and type 2 diabetes

StudyPopulation (cases)Duration (years)Dietary assessment methodCase ascertainmentMagnesium intake (highest vs. lowest, mg/day)Adjusted RR (95% CI)Adjustment for potential confounders
Kao et al., 1999 (8)11,896 adults aged 45–64 years, U.S. (1,106)6Validated FFQGlucose levels, use of diabetic medication, and self-report361 vs. 154White: 1.08 (0.78–1.49); black: 0.98 (0.57–1.72)Age, BMI, sex, education, family history, WHR, sports index, diuretic use, and intakes of alcohol, calcium, and potassium
Meyer et al., 2000 (9)35,988 women aged 55–69 years, U.S. (1,141)6Validated FFQSelf-report362 vs. 2200.67 (0.55–0.82)Age, BMI, education, smoking, WHR, physical activity, intakes of total energy, alcohol, whole grains, and cereal fiber
Hodge et al., 2004 (10)34,641 adults aged 40–69 years, Australia (365)4FFQConfirmed self-report773 vs. 2300.55 (0.32–0.97)Age, BMI, sex, education, country of birth, family history, WHR, weight change, physical activity, and intakes of total energy and alcohol
Lopez-Ridaura et al., 2004 (11)42,872 men aged 40–75 years, U.S. (1,333)11Validated FFQConfirmed self-report457 vs. 2700.72 (0.58–0.89)Age, BMI, family history, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, physical activity, and intakes of total energy, alcohol, glycemic load, PUFA, TFA, processed meat, and cereal fiber
Lopez-Ridaura et al., 2004 (11)85,060 women aged 30–55 years, U.S. (4,085)17Validated FFQConfirmed self-report374 vs. 2220.73 (0.65–0.82)Age, BMI, family history, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, physical activity, and intakes of total energy, alcohol, glycemic load, PUFA, TFA, processed meat, and cereal fiber
Song et al., 2004 (12)38,025 women aged ≥45 years, U.S. (918)6Validated FFQConfirmed self-report399 vs. 2520.89 (0.71–1.10)Age, BMI, family history, smoking, physical activity, and intakes of total energy and alcohol
van Dam et al., 2006 (13)41,186 women aged 21–69 years, U.S. (1,964)6Validated FFQConfirmed self-report244 vs. 1150.65 (0.54–0.78)Age, BMI, education, family history, smoking, physical activity, and intakes of total energy, alcohol, coffee, sugar-sweetened drinks, red meat, processed meat, and calcium
Schulze et al., 2007 (14)25,067 adults aged 35–65 years, Germany (844)7Validated FFQConfirmed self-report377 vs. 2680.99 (0.78–1.26)Age, BMI, sex, education, sports activity, cycling, occupational activity, smoking, WC, and intakes of total energy, alcohol, carbohydrate, PUFA-to-SFA ratio, MUFA-to-SFA ratio, and cereal fiber
Villegas et al., 2009 (15)64,191 women aged 40–70 years, China (2,270)6.9Validated FFQConfirmed self-report318 vs. 2140.80 (0.68–0.93)Age, BMI, WHR, smoking, physical activity, income, education, occupation, hypertension, and intakes of total energy and alcohol
Hopping et al., 2010 (16)75,512 men aged 45–75 years, U.S. (8,587)14FFQGlucose levels, use of diabetic medication, and self-report370 vs. 260Men: 0.77 (0.70–0.85); women: 0.84 (0.76–0.93)BMI, physical activity, education, ethnicity, and total energy intake
Kim et al., 2010 (17)4,497 adults aged 18–30 years, U.S. (330)20Validated diet history questionnaireGlucose levels and use of diabetic medication403 vs. 2000.53 (0.32–0.86)Age, BMI, sex, ethnicity, study center, education, smoking, physical activity, family history, systolic blood pressure, and intakes of total energy, alcohol, saturated fat, and crude fiber
Kirii et al., 2010 (18)17,592 adults aged 40–65 years, Japan (459)5Validated dietary questionnaireConfirmed self-report303 vs. 1580.64 (0.44–0.94)Age, BMI, family history, smoking, hours of walking and sports participation, and intakes of total energy, alcohol, green tea, and coffee
Nanri et al., 2010 (19)59,791 men aged 45–75 years, Japan (1,114)5Validated FFQConfirmed self-report348 vs. 213Men: 0.86 (0.63–1.16); women 0.92 (0.66–1.28)Age, BMI, study area, smoking, family history, leisure time physical activity, hypertension, and intakes of total energy, alcohol, coffee, and calcium
  • FFQ, food-frequency questionnaire; MUFA, monounsaturated fatty acid; PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acid; SFA, saturated fatty acid; TFA, trans fatty acid; WC, waist circumference; WHR, waist-to-hip ratio.