Table 2

Definitions of DKA

Study/registerDefinition of DKA
TEDDYStrict definition: DKA, arterial pH <7.30 or bicarbonate <15 mmol/L; severe DKA, arterial pH <7.10 or bicarbonate <5 mmol/L. Broad definition: DKA, arterial pH <7.30 or bicarbonate <15 mmol/L. If pH and bicarbonate values missing, DKA was diagnosed if urine ketones >40 mg/dL, blood ketones >3.0 mmol/L, or by physician’s diagnosis.
SwediabkidsDKA, arterial pH <7.30 (primary) or bicarbonate <15 (secondary); severe DKA, arterial pH <7.10 or bicarbonate <5 mmol/L.
SEARCHDKA, bicarbonate <15 mmol/L, venous pH <7.25 or arterial pH <7.30 or International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, code 250.1, or physician’s diagnosis of DKA.
Finnish Pediatric Diabetes RegistryDKA, arterial pH <7.30; severe DKA, arterial pH <7.10. In children without pH or bicarbonate data, negative urine ketones, negative blood ketones, or lack of symptoms (polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia) were used to exclude DKA.
German DPV RegistryDKA, arterial pH <7.30; severe DKA, arterial pH <7.10. In patients without biochemical data, chart abstraction and physician attestation of the patient’s condition at diagnosis was used to exclude DKA.