Table 1

Established, new, and emerging metabolomic biomarkers for type 2 diabetes

PredictorAbbreviationReference no.
Metabolic markers
 Insulin7 and 8
 Glucose7 and 8
 γ-Glutamyl transferaseGGT4 and 8
 Alanine aminotransferaseALT5 and 6
 FerritinFTH17 and 8
 Pancreatic polypeptidePP9
 Fibronectin10
 Fetuin A11
 Sex hormone–binding globulinSHBG7 and 12
 Free testosterone12
 Insulin-like growth factor IIGF-I13
 Insulin receptor8
 Creatine kinase-MBCKMB8
 MR-Pro atrial natriuretic peptideMR_PRO_ANP8
 NT-Pro B-type natriuretic peptideNT_PRO_BNP8
 B-type natriuretic peptideBNP8
Biomarkers of glycemia
 Glycated hemoglobinHbA1c
 Fructosamine14
 1,5-Anhydroglucitol1,5AG15
 Glycated albumin16
 Glycated insulin17
 Glycosylated amylin18
 Glycated LDL19
Markers of oxidative stress and nutrient status
 GlutathioneGSH20
 Advanced glycated end products receptorRAGE24
 Ascorbic acidVitamin C21
 25-Hydroxyvitamin DVitamin D22
 Homocysteine8
 Branched-chain and aromatic amino acidsLeu, Ile, Val, Tyr, Phe23
Lipid-related markers
 LeptinLEP6 and 25
 AdiponectinADIPOQ6, 8, and 25
 Apolipoprotein BApoB8
 Apolipoprotein AApoA8
Endothelial and inflammatory markers
 C-reactive proteinCRP6–8 and 26
 Interleukin-18IL-188 and 27
 Interleukin-1 receptor antagonistIL-1ra28
 Interleukin-2 receptor antagonistIL-2ra7
 Interleukin-6IL-66–8
 Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1PAI-16 and 29
 Cell adhesion moleculeCAM30
 Tissue plasminogen activator antigent-PA antigen, PLAT31
 Neopterin8
 Von Willebrand factorvWF31