Table 1

Literature review of DKA at diagnosis in children under age 5 years

Study country (reference)Definition of DKATime of diabetes onsetDKA frequency % (n)
<2 years of age<3 years of age<5 years of age
SEARCH, U.S. (7)42002–2004NANA37.3 (458)
Austria (3)11989–200860 (185)NA43.7 (775)
Germany (5)31987–1997NANA36.0 (470)
Germany and Austria (8)11995–2007NANA26.5 (NA)
Canada (2)51994–2000NA39.7% (390)NA
Finland (6)21992–200144.71, 54.22 (48)NA23.71, 29.32 (137)
U.S. (9)11995–1998NANA54.5 (44)
  • NA, data not available. DKA defined as follows: 1 = pH <7.3; 2 = pH <7.3 and/or bicarbonate <15 mmol/L; 3 = pH <7.3 or bicarbonate <15 mmol/L and ketonuria; 4 = arterial or capillary pH <7.3/venous pH <7.25 or ICD 9 code 250.1 at discharge or DKA diagnosis mentioned in the medical charts; 5 = ICD 9 codes 250.1/250.2/250.3 from medical charts. Superscript numbers refer to DKA frequency calculated by DKA definitions 1 and 2.