Table 1

Characteristics of the participants according to daytime sleepiness (yes/no)

Variable Daytime sleepiness (N = 3,528)
No (n = 2,993)Yes (n = 535)P value
Age (years)72.1 (5.3)73.6 (5.8)<0.001
Waist circumference (cm)92.7 (12.6)94.7 (13.3)<0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)138.1 (19.7)141.1 (20.8)0.001
Physical activity (kcal/week)1,963.4 (2,192.0)1,476.8 (1,725.9)<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)26.1 (4.3)26.8 (5.0)0.01
Depression score4.0 (4.2)6.2 (5.0)<0.001
Creatinine (┬Ámol/L)92 (25)96 (30)0.001
Albumin (g/dL)40.0 (2.9)39.8 (2.9)0.02
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)5.6 (1.0)5.5 (1.0)0.24
Digit symbol substitution test score38.3 (13.0)33.3 (14.0)<0.001
Fasting glucose (mmol/L)5.5 (0.5)5.6 (0.6)0.14
Male sex (%)58.754.00.04
White race (%)89.085.40.05
Current smokers (%)11.513.10.13
Married (%)75.070.50.02
Observed apnea (%)7.212.0<0.001
Bothersome snoring (%)21.833.1<0.001
Sleep initiation problems (%)19.231.0<0.001
Sleep maintenance problems (%)60.875.0<0.001
Early morning awakenings (%)27.849.4<0.001
Heavy drinkers (%)15.412.90.03
College graduate (%)46.436.1<0.001
Use of antihypertensive medications (%)41.544.30.22
Prevalent myocardial infarction (%)7.16.50.63
  • Data are reported as mean (SD), unless otherwise indicated.