Table 4

Symptoms of SDB and insomnia and 10-year risk of incident type 2 diabetes

Events/person-time (208/29,234)Model 1Model 2
HR95% CIP valueHR95% CIP value
Daytime sleepiness56/5,016
 Time dependent1.621.19–2.210.0021.581.15–2.180.005
 Cumulative average1.631.09–2.420.021.561.03–2.360.04
Observed apnea24/1,626
 Time dependent1.981.28–3.050.0021.861.20–2.880.006
 Cumulative average1.540.90–2.640.121.440.84–2.480.19
Bothersome snoring88/10,307
 Time dependent1.300.97–1.750.081.280.95–1.720.11
 Cumulative average1.360.96–1.930.091.330.93–1.900.12
SDB symptoms
 182/10,5721.371.00–1.870.051.340.98–1.840.07
 2–340/3,0342.121.44–3.13<0.0012.001.35–2.980.001
Linear trend<0.0010.001
Sleep initiation problems41/5,999
 Time dependent1.050.74–1.490.790.990.69–1.430.96
 Cumulative average1.030.69–1.540.880.940.61–1.430.77
Sleep maintenance problems133/18,838
 Time dependent0.940.71–1.260.690.870.65–1.170.36
 Cumulative average0.920.66–1.280.610.840.60–1.180.33
Early morning awakenings68/9,183
 Time dependent1.060.79–1.410.710.990.73–1.340.95
 Cumulative average0.950.68–1.330.760.870.61–1.240.43
Insomnia symptoms
 179/10,2401.180.83–1.690.361.140.80–0.640.48
 249/6,8991.070.72–1.600.730.950.62–1.430.79
 322/3,2381.130.68–1.880.630.980.57–1.670.94
 44/9030.710.25–1.980.510.570.20–1.620.29
Linear trend0.950.42
  • SDB symptoms include daytime sleepiness, observed apnea, and bothersome snoring. Insomnia symptoms include sleep initiation problems, sleep maintenance problems, early morning awakenings, and daytime sleepiness. Model 1, adjusted for age, sex, race, waist circumference, and clinic site. Model 2, adjusted for age, sex, race, marital status, clinic site, education, systolic blood pressure, use of antihypertensive medications, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, BMI, waist circumference, depression score, creatinine levels, albumin levels, cholesterol levels, prevalent myocardial infarction, digit symbol substitution test results, and observed apnea (for the insomnia symptoms, daytime sleepiness and bothersome snoring).