Table 1

Anthropometrics, biochemical characteristics, and PA among Mexican Pimas and non-Pimas by survey years (1995 and 2010)

Non-PimasPimas
Characteristics19952010P19952010P
Male (n)91128108170
 Age (years)41.7 ± 16.545.0 ± 16.940.5 ± 16.840.0 ± 16.1
 Weight (kg)72.0 ± 12.479.2 ± 14.3<0.000166.1 ± 11.373.6 ± 14.7<0.0001
 Height (m)171.7 ± 6.1171.9 ± 6.00.5038166.5 ± 6.0168.4 ± 6.40.0145
 BMI (kg/m2)24.4 ± 3.726.8 ± 4.5<0.000123.8 ± 3.425.8 ± 4.4<0.0001
 Waist circumference (cm)86.4 ± 9.892.2 ± 11.10.000282.9 ± 9.088.7 ± 11.1<0.0001
 Fasting glucose (mg/dL)87.4 ± 8.1104.1 ± 26.9<0.000197.2 ± 29.9101.4 ± 21.30.1333
 2-h glucose (mg/dL)87.2 ± 27.1122.0 ± 73.5<0.0001107.1 ± 74.2123.4 ± 54.80.0246
 HbA1c (%)5.1 ± 0.46.0 ± 1.2<0.00015.2 ± 1.35.7 ± 0.90.0004
 HbA1c (mmol/mol)32 ± 442 ± 13<0.000133 ± 1439 ± 100.0004
 HOPA (h/week)*13.7 (9.1–16.2)9.0 (7.0–15.5)0.020319.2 (16.6–21.9)17.7 (14.5–20.3)0.0127
 TV (h/week)*6.9 (6.9–7.6)6.9 (3.7–6.9)
 Energy from fat (%)26.5 ± 5.433.1 ± 8.2<0.000127.5 ± 5.931.0 ± 9.30.0006
 Energy from carbohydrate (%)60.7 ± 6.151.9 ± 9.3<0.000160.7 ± 5.955.9 ± 9.7<0.0001
 Energy from protein (%)12.7 ± 2.614.5 ± 3.50.001111.8 ± 2.213.6 ± 5.60.0067
 Modernization index8.6 ± 3.54.5 ± 3.4
Female (n)104123118189
 Age (years)39.8 ± 14.241.9 ± 16.135.9 ± 12.738.6 ± 14.8
 Weight (kg)66.4 ± 14.473.4 ± 15.80.000461.9 ± 11.868.8 ± 13.4<0.0001
 Height (m)155.8 ± 5.7158.1 ± 6.00.0002154.4 ± 5.8155.1 ± 5.70.2173
 BMI (kg/m2)27.3 ± 5.529.5 ± 5.50.005326.0 ± 4.428.6 ± 5.0<0.0001
 Waist circumference (cm)84.3 ± 12.794.6 ± 11.6<0.000185.4 ± 12.894.7 ± 11.7<0.0001
 Fasting glucose (mg/dL)90.5 ± 21.699.9 ± 35.10.029196.0 ± 32.9102.7 ± 38.50.2773
 2-h glucose (mg/dL)113.6 ± 59.3137.4 ± 78.50.0276125.8 ± 82.4147.8 ± 90.20.0871
 HbA1c (%)5.3 ± 0.95.9 ± 1.20.00015.5 ± 1.66.0 ± 1.50.0163
 HbA1c (mmol/mol)34 ± 1041 ± 130.000137 ± 1842 ± 160.0001
 HOPA (h/week)*0.8 (0.3–1.9)1.6 (0.7–3.3)0.11670.9 (0.6–1.9)1.2 (0.9–2.0)0.0016
 TV (h/week)*13.9 (6.9–13.9)13.9 (6.9–13.9)
 Energy from fat (%)26.5 ± 4.631.6 ± 9.5<0.000127.1 ± 5.229.3 ± 9.50.0279
 Energy from carbohydrate (%)61.0 ± 5.253.8 ± 9.9<0.000161.0 ± 5.458.3 ± 9.90.0074
 Energy from protein (%)12.5 ± 2.114.5 ± 4.4<0.000111.9 ± 1.812.4 ± 3.80.0996
 Modernization index7.2 ± 3.14.0 ± 3.1
  • Data are means ± SD. Modernization index represents the number of technological features to which an individual reported having access (see text). P values are for the comparison between time periods and were calculated by linear regression with adjustment for age, except that for HOPA, which was calculated by the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Twenty-five percent of individuals in the 2010 survey are lacking dietary information because the 24-h recall was not performed. HOPA, hard occupational PA.

  • *Median and 95% CI.