Table 1

Baseline characteristics

Total (n = 406)Men (n = 208)Women (n = 198)P
Age (years)51.6 (11.8)51.4 (11.4)51.8 (12.2)0.74
BMI (kg/m2)24.2 (3.3)25.4 (3.1)22.9 (3.1)<0.001
Waist circumference (cm)*82.0 (10.5)88.4 (8.0)75.3 (8.4)<0.001
VAT area (cm2)76.2 (40.9–108.7)57.1 (30.9–90.1)91.3 (58.5–124.7)<0.001
Family history of diabetes, n (%)145 (35.7)68 (32.7)77 (38.9)0.19
Moderate alcohol consumption, n (%)73 (18.0)57 (27.4)16 (8.1)<0.001
Current smoking, n (%)53 (13.1)29 (13.9)24 (12.1)0.59
Regular physical activity, n (%)96 (23.6)70 (33.7)26 (13.1)<0.001
Lipid-lowering medication, n (%)6 (1.7)4 (1.9)2 (1.0)0.69
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)128.3 (16.9)131.2 (16.8)125.2 (16.7)<0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)76.7 (9.4)79.2 (8.9)74.1 (9.3)<0.001
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L)5.16 (0.57)5.31 (0.59)5.00 (0.50)<0.001
2-h plasma glucose (mmol/L)7.25 (1.68)7.23 (1.72)7.27 (1.65)0.82
HOMA-IR2.67 (1.91–3.70)2.61 (1.89–3.56)2.73 (1.96–3.87)0.27
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)5.84 (1.05)5.95 (1.06)5.73 (1.04)0.040
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)3.63 (0.93)3.81 (0.97)3.44 (0.85)<0.001
Triglycerides (mmol/L)1.25 (0.86–1.77)1.45 (1.03–2.13)1.04 (0.73–1.46)<0.001
Total HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.51 (0.44)1.33 (0.34)1.70 (0.45)<0.001
 HDL2 cholesterol (mmol/L)0.42 (0.32)0.28 (0.21)0.57 (0.35)<0.001
 HDL3 cholesterol (mmol/L)1.09 (0.17)1.05 (0.17)1.13 (0.17)<0.001
Non-HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)4.33 (1.14)4.61 (1.10)4.03 (1.10)<0.001
ApoB (g/L)1.10 (0.27)1.11 (0.23)1.10 (0.29)0.86
ApoA-I (g/L)1.54 (0.31)1.37 (0.25)1.62 (0.30)<0.001
Total HDL cholesterol–to–apoA-I ratio0.40 (0.08)0.38 (0.07)0.41 (0.09)0.007
  • Data are expressed as mean (SD), median (interquartile range), or as n (%). Moderate alcohol consumption was defined as 6–48 g/day of ethanol. Regular physical activity was defined as more than moderate physical activity.

  • Apo, apolipoprotein.

  • *n = 401.

  • n = 292.