Table 2

Differences in mean fasting glucose examinations in 1989 and 1993 and 2-h glucose levels from the 1989 examination according to symptoms of SDB and insomnia

Fasting glucose (mmol/L) (N = 5,385)2-h glucose (mmol/L) (N = 3,007)
nModel 1Model 2nModel 1Model 2
B95% CIP valueB95% CIP valueB95% CIP valueB95% CIP value
Daytime sleepiness8010.030.00–0.070.070.03−0.01 to 0.060.164440.380.15–0.620.0010.350.11–0.590.004
Observed apnea4020.03−0.02 to 0.080.190.03−0.02 to 0.080.182420.08−0.23 to 0.400.610.10−0.21 to 0.410.53
Bothersome snoring1,1130.02−0.01 to 0.050.200.03−0.01 to 0.060.126950.12−0.09 to 0.320.260.17−0.03 to 0.370.10
SDB symptoms
 11,3100.00−0.03 to 0.030.890.00−0.03 to 0.030.867610.16−0.04 to 0.360.110.14−0.05 to 0.340.16
 2–34670.060.01–0.110.010.060.02–0.110.0082870.300.01–0.710.050.350.06–0.640.02
Linear trend0.050.060.020.01
Sleep initiation1,099−0.02−0.06 to 0.010.21−0.04−0.07 to 0.000.036340.01−0.20 to 0.220.91−0.07−0.28 to 0.140.52
Sleep maintenance3,311−0.04−0.06 to −0.010.009−0.04−0.07 to −0.020.0011,897−0.04−0.21 to 0.140.67−0.05−0.28 to 0.070.26
Early morning1,6300.00−0.03 to 0.030.91−0.01−0.04 to 0.020.479300.09−0.09 to 0.270.330.07−0.12 to 0.250.47
Insomnia symptoms
 11,828−0.03−0.06 to −0.010.12−0.03−0.06 to 0.000.081,044−0.22−0.43 to 0.000.05−0.21−0.43 to 0.000.05
 21,266−0.02−0.06 to 0.050.19−0.04−0.08 to 0.000.037200.09−0.14 to 0.330.440.05−0.18 to 0.290.65
 3607−0.04−0.09 to 0.010.09−0.07−0.11 to −0.10.013390.00−0.30 to 0.300.99−0.07−0.38 to 0.240.66
 4150−0.01−0.09 to 0.080.90−0.04−0.12 to 0.040.352950.24−0.26 to 0.740.340.13−0.37 to 0.640.61
Linear trend0.170.0130.210.58
  • SDB symptoms include daytime sleepiness, observed apnea, and bothersome snoring. Insomnia symptoms include sleep initiation problems, sleep maintenance problems, early morning awakenings, and daytime sleepiness. Model 1, adjusted for age, sex, race, waist circumference, and clinic site. Model 2, adjusted for age, sex, race, marital status, clinic site, education, systolic blood pressure, use of antihypertensive medications, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, BMI, waist circumference, depression score, creatinine level, albumin level, cholesterol level, prevalent myocardial infarction, digit symbol substitution test results, and observed apnea (for the insomnia symptoms, daytime sleepiness and bothersome snoring).