Table 3

Differences in mean indices of insulin sensitivity (Gutt index) and insulin secretion (Stumvoll index) from the 1989 examination according to symptoms of SDB and insomnia

Insulin sensitivity (N = 3,007)Insulin secretion
nModel 1Model 2Model 1Model 2
B95% CIP valueB95% CIP valueB95% CIP valueB95% CIP value
Daytime sleepiness444−2.95−5.28 to −0.620.01−2.452−4.86 to −0.180.0440.0−16.5 to 96.60.1725.1−32.9 to 83.00.40
Observed apnea242−3.35−6.4 to −0.240.03−3.40−6.44 to −0.370.0382.17.0–157.20.0375.81.3–150.30.05
Bothersome snoring695−2.03−4.02 to −0.030.05−2.51−4.47 to −0.560.0156.98.6–105.20.0252.764.5–100.6<0.001
SDB symptoms
 1761−1.72−3.66 to 0.220.08−1.45−3.36 to 0.470.1449.52.5–96.50.0438.9−8.1 to 85.90.10
 2–3287−4.34−7.26 to −1.430.004−4.76−7.63 to −1.890.00195.925.3 to 166.50.00883.212.7–153.60.02
Linear trend0.0020.0010.0020.01
Sleep initiation634−0.98−3.03 to 1.090.36−0.21−2.32 to 1.890.8442.9−6.9 to 92.80.0930.0−21.6 to 81.60.26
Sleep maintenance1,8970.01−1.70 to 1.720.990.72−1.03 to 2.480.4243.72.3–85.10.0442.8−0.2 to 85.80.05
Early morning930−1.13−2.92 to 0.650.21−0.92−2.73 to 0.890.32−2.9−46.1 to 40.30.90−14.0−58.3 to 30.30.54
Insomnia symptoms
 11,0441.42−0.70 to 3.530.191.56−0.52 to 3.640.2937.8−13.5 to 89.00.1525.1−26.1 to 76.10.34
 2720−1.32−3.64 to 0.990.26−0.72−3.05 to 1.600.7749.9−6.2 to 106.00.0833.4−23.7 to 90.50.25
 3339−0.65−3.58 to 2.280.660.21−2.79 to 3.220.9829.9−41.1 to 100.90.416.3−67.5 to 80.10.87
 495−2.85−7.76 to 2.050.25−1.36−6.31 to 3.580.59126.17.31–244.90.0490.8−30.6 to 212.30.14
Linear trend0.110.470.050.29
  • SDB symptoms include daytime sleepiness, observed apnea, and bothersome snoring. Insomnia symptoms include sleep initiation problems, sleep maintenance problems, early morning awakenings, and daytime sleepiness. Model 1, adjusted for age, sex, race, waist circumference, and clinic site. Model 2, adjusted for age, sex, race, marital status, clinic site, education, systolic blood pressure, use of antihypertensive medications, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, BMI, waist circumference, depression score, creatinine levels, albumin levels, cholesterol levels, prevalent myocardial infarction, digit symbol substitution test results, and observed apnea (for the insomnia symptoms, daytime sleepiness and bothersome snoring).