Table 3

Associations of PA, dietary variables, and modernization index with BMI and diabetes

A: Associations with BMI (kg/m2)
MenWomenMen + women
BetaSEPBetaSEPBetaSEP
Age (years)−0.0230.0150.1301−0.0160.0190.4040−0.0200.0120.1044
Ethnicity (Pima vs. non-Pima)−1.060.520.0426−0.840.600.1632−0.950.400.0176
Sex (male vs. female)−2.630.39<0.0001
“Hard” occupational activity (SD)−0.150.220.4900−0.591.560.7048−0.170.240.4830
Total occupational activity (SD)0.430.290.13790.280.300.34890.350.210.0942
Total fiber intake (SD)0.130.320.6903−0.440.350.2106−0.160.240.5049
Percentage calories from fat (SD)−0.140.370.69970.070.310.81280.010.230.9560
Percentage calories from carbohydrate (SD)−0.070.360.8412−0.050.320.8737−0.080.240.7438
Percentage calories from protein (SD)0.270.340.4309−0.060.320.86410.080.230.7192
Modernization index (SD)1.300.28<0.00010.740.350.03771.030.22<0.0001
B: Associations with diabetes
MenWomenMen + women
OR95% CIPOR95% CIPOR95% CIP
Age (years)1.051.02–1.070.00031.071.04–1.09<0.00011.061.04–1.08<0.0001
Ethnicity (Pima vs non-Pima)0.660.27–1.590.35151.560.71–3.450.27511.070.90–1.900.8305
Sex (male vs. female)0.560.32–1.010.0524
“Hard” occupational activity (SD)0.530.29–0.940.02960.580.05–7.640.68170.540.31–0.950.0311
Total occupational activity (SD)0.750.44–1.280.29230.900.62–1.310.56760.860.64–1160.3213
Total fiber intake (SD)1.130.68–1.860.64181.150.73–1.820.53601.170.84–1.630.3669
Percentage calories from fat (SD)0.620.34–1.120.11300.700.46–1.040.07960.710.51–0.990.0406
Percentage calories from carbohydrate (SD)1.130.62–2.050.69031.520.99–2.320.05531.310.94–1.830.1178
Percentage calories from protein (SD)1.701.10–2.620.01730.870.54–1.380.54841.170.85–1.600.3445
Modernization index (SD)1.220.74–2.000.44191.160.72–1.840.54521.220.87–1.710.2457
  • In the analysis of BMI, “beta” represents the regression coefficient (i.e., the difference in BMI in kg/m2 per SD of the explanatory variable). In the analysis of diabetes, OR is for diabetes per SD difference in the explanatory variable. All results are adjusted for age, sex, and ethnicity (Pima vs. non-Pima).