Table 3

Multilevel regression models of BMI and behavioral outcomesa

Change in outcome variables (postcurriculum – baseline)
BMI (n = 2,553)bRAPA (n = 2,240)bHealthy diet (n = 2,357)bUnhealthy diet (n = 2,355)b
β (95% CI)β (95% CI)β (95% CI)β (95% CI)
Model 1: sex and age only
 Female*time0.29 (0.11, 0.46)**0.20 (0.08, 0.32)**−0.00 (−0.08, 0.08)0.03 (−0.04, 0.10)
 Age (10-year increment)*time−0.09 (−0.15, −0.02)**−0.00 (−0.05, 0.04)0.00 (−0.03, 0.03)0.04 (0.01, 0.06)**
Model 2: model 1 + employment status
 Female*time0.27 (0.09, 0.45)**0.21 (0.08, 0.33)**0.00 (−0.08, 0.08)0.03 (−0.04, 0.10)
 Age (10-year increment)*time−0.07 (−0.14, 0.01)−0.01 (−0.06, 0.04)0.01 (−0.02, 0.04)0.03 (−0.00, 0.06)*
 Employment status (ref: employed)
  Retired*time−0.23 (−0.55, 0.10)**−0.02 (−0.25, 0.22)−0.11 (−0.26, 0.04)0.10 (−0.03, 0.23)
  Unemployed/student*time0.01 (−0.21, 0.23)−0.03 (−0.18, 0.11)−0.08 (−0.18, 0.02)−0.00 (−0.09, 0.08)
Model 3: model 2 + annual household income
 Female*time0.26 (0.08, 0.44)**0.21 (0.09, 0.34)***0.00 (−0.08, 0.08)0.03 (−0.04, 0.10)
 Age (10-year increment)*time−0.06 (−0.13, 0.01)−0.01 (−0.06, 0.04)0.01 (−0.02, 0.04)0.03 (0.00, 0.06)*
 Employment status (ref: employed)
  Retired*time−0.31 (−0.64, 0.02)0.01 (−0.22, 0.25)−0.09 (−0.24, 0.06)0.08 (−0.05, 0.22)
  Unemployed/student*time−0.14 (−0.39, 0.10)0.03 (−0.13, 0.19)−0.06 (−0.17, 0.04)−0.03 (−0.13, 0.06)
 Annual household income (ref: ≥$50,000)
  <$15,000*time0.49 (0.21, 0.77)***−0.15 (−0.34, 0.03)−0.05 (−0.16, 0.07)0.10 (−0.01, 0.20)
  $15,000 to <$30,000*time0.25 (0.03, 0.48)*−0.02 (−0.19, 0.14)−0.07 (−0.18, 0.04)0.05 (−0.04, 0.14)
  $30,000 to <$50,000*time0.21 (0.00, 0.42)*0.04 (−0.11, 0.19)−0.00 (−0.10, 0.09)0.03 (−0.05, 0.12)
Model 4: model 3 + proportion of staff completing graduate or professional school
Participant characteristics
  Female*time0.26 (0.08, 0.44)**0.21 (0.09, 0.34)***0.00 (−0.08, 0.08)0.03 (−0.04, 0.10)
  Age (10-year increment)*time−0.05 (−0.12, 0.02)−0.01 (−0.06, 0.04)0.01 (−0.03, 0.04)0.03 (−0.00, 0.06)
  Employment status (ref: employed)
   Retired*time−0.29 (−0.62, 0.04)0.02 (−0.22, 0.25)−0.09 (−0.25, 0.06)0.08 (−0.05, 0.21)
   Unemployed/student*time−0.13 (−0.38, 0.11)0.03 (−0.13, 0.19)−0.06 (−0.17, 0.04)−0.03 (−0.13, 0.06)
  Annual household income (ref: ≥$50,000)
   < $15,000*time0.50 (0.22, 0.77)***−0.15 (−0.34, 0.04)−0.05 (−0.17, 0.07)0.09 (−0.01, 0.20)
   $15,000 to <$30,000*time0.26 (0.04, 0.49)*−0.02 (−0.19, 0.14)−0.07 (−0.18, 0.03)0.05 (−0.05, 0.14)
   $30,000 to <$50,000*time0.21 (0.01, 0.42)*0.04 (−0.11, 0.19)−0.00 (−0.10, 0.09)0.03 (−0.06, 0.12)
 Site characteristics
  Proportion of staff with graduate or professional degree <50%*time0.24 (0.09, 0.39)**0.04 (−0.07, 0.15)−0.07 (−0.13, 0.00)−0.02 (−0.08, 0.04)
  • ref, reference group.

  • aLinear mixed models based on all available data with imputed baseline socioeconomic data as independent variables.

  • bSample sizes vary because some participants had missing data in the behavioral outcome measures at both time points.

  • *P < 0.05.

  • **P < 0.01.

  • ***P < 0.001.