Table 4

Multilevel regression models of BMI controlling for changes in diet and physical activitya

Model 5 (n = 1,555)bModel 6 (n = 1,555)bModel 7 (n = 1,555)bModel 8 (n = 1,555)bModel 9 (n = 1,555)b
β (95% CI)β (95% CI)β (95% CI)β (95% CI)β (95% CI)
Participant characteristics
 Female*time0.24 (0.05, 0.43)**0.20 (0.01, 0.39)*0.28 (0.09, 0.47)**0.36 (0.17, 0.54)***0.28 (0.09, 0.47)**
 Age (10-year increment)*time−0.06 (−0.14, 0.02)−0.06 (−0.13, 0.02)−0.04 (−0.12, 0.03)−0.03 (−0.10, 0.05)−0.03 (−0.10, 0.05)
 Employment status (ref: employed)
  Retired*time−0.41 (−0.77, −0.06)*−0.31 (−0.66, 0.03)−0.41 (−0.76, −0.06)*−0.34 (−0.69, 0.01)−0.36 (−0.70, −0.02)*
  Unemployed/student*time−0.09 (−0.35, 0.18)−0.10 (−0.36, 0.15)−0.11 (−0.37, 0.14)−0.06 (−0.31, 0.19)−0.05 (−0.30, 0.20)
 Annual household income (ref: ≥$50,000)
  <$15,000*time0.52 (0.22, 0.82)***0.55 (0.25, 0.84)***0.41 (0.11, 0.71)**0.33 (0.04, 0.61)*0.36 (0.07, 0.66)*
  $15,000 to <$30,000*time0.27 (0.02, 0.51)*0.28 (0.05, 0.52)*0.19 (−0.06, 0.43)0.16 (−0.07, 0.40)0.15 (−0.09, 0.38)
  $30,000 to <$50,000*time0.22 (−0.00, 0.44)*0.23 (0.01, 0.45)*0.19 (−0.04, 0.41)0.18 (−0.04, 0.39)0.15 (−0.07, 0.36)
 Baseline RAPA*time−0.28 (−0.39, −0.17)***−0.22 (−0.33, −0.11)***
 Change in RAPA*time−0.42 (−0.52, −0.32)***−0.29 (−0.39, −0.19)***
 Baseline healthy diet*time−0.15 (−0.27, −0.04)**−0.12 (−0.23, −0.00)*
 Change in healthy diet*time−0.45 (−0.58, −0.33)***−0.40 (−0.53, −0.28)***
 Baseline unhealthy diet*time0.42 (0.28, 0.56)***0.35 (0.21, 0.49)***
 Change in unhealthy diet*time0.80 (0.65, 0.94)***0.72 (0.57, 0.86)***
Site characteristics
 Proportion of staff completing graduate/professional school <50%*time0.25 (0.08, 0.42)**0.26 (0.10, 0.42)**0.22 (0.06, 0.38)**0.27 (0.11, 0.43)**0.24 (0.08, 0.40)**
  • ref, reference group.

  • aLinear mixed models based on paired data with imputed baseline socioeconomic variables and nonimputed changes in behaviors as independent variables.

  • bBecause 998 participants had missing data on at least one of behavioral change, the sample sizes of models in Table 4 are smaller than those of models in Table 3.

  • *P < 0.05.

  • **P < 0.01.

  • ***P < 0.001.