Table 1

Clinical characteristics of patients at baseline by albuminuria status and CKD

Nonalbuminuric non-CKDNonalbuminuric CKD Albuminuric non-CKDAlbuminuric CKD
n = 2,567n = 78P valuen = 740P value*n = 424P value*
Female sex (%)5177<0.00140<0.00142<0.001
Age (years)34.9 (26.3–43.9)55.1 (45.5–61.3)<0.00137.4 (30.1–46.4)<0.00143.7 (36.1–50.7)<0.001
Diabetes duration (years)16.4 (8.8–26.0)35.8 (22.8–45.7)<0.00125.2 (18.0–32.1)<0.00130.1 (24.4–35.6)<0.001
Age at diabetes onset (years)16.3 (10.6–25.1)14.7 (11.6–25.3)0.94311.0 (6.7–16.8)<0.00112.1 (8.1–17.5)<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)24.8 ± 3.425.2 ± 3.30.36925.8 ± 3.80.19025.9 ± 4.10.139
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)129 ± 15137 ± 200.003137 ± 170.847147 ± 21<0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)78 ± 975 ± 90.00181 ± 10<0.00182 ± 11<0.001
HbA1c (%)8.2 ± 1.48.1 ± 1.20.5148.9 ± 1.5<0.0019.0 ± 1.5<0.001
HbA1c (mmol/mol)66 ± 1565 ± 130.51374 ± 17<0.00174 ± 16<0.001
Cholesterol (mmol/L)4.78 ± 0.894.91 ± 0.940.1815.09 ± 0.990.1275.29 ± 1.220.010
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)2.90 ± 0.812.91 ± 0.910.9373.17 ± 0.920.0183.26 ± 0.990.004
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.38 ± 0.381.51 ± 0.450.0131.31 ± 0.39<0.0011.19 ± 0.41<0.001
Triglycerides (mmol/L)0.93 (0.71–1.28)0.99 (0.81–1.24)0.1681.12 (0.84–1.62)0.0091.47 (1.08–2.24)<0.001
GFR (mL/min)97 (83–110)55 (49–58)<0.00187 (75–102)<0.00137 (23–51)<0.001
Urinary AER (mg/24 h)7 (4–12)7 (5–13)0.92491 (36–261)<0.001471 (121–1,464)<0.001
Antihypertensive medication (%)1446<0.00175<0.00199<0.001
ACE inhibitors or ARBs (%)1129<0.00169<0.00186<0.001
Other antihypertensive agents (%)6.932<0.001250.43179<0.001
Antihypertensive medications used<0.0010.001<0.001
 n (range) 0 (0–4)0 (0–4)1 (0–5)2 (0–5)
 Mean0.190.811.052.35
History of retinal laser treatment (%)1344<0.001550.07283<0.001
History of cardiovascularevent (%)2.019<0.0014.2<0.001170.613
Current smoking (%)23120.02934<0.001240.033
  • Data are presented as percentages, median (interquartile range), or mean ± SD.

  • AER, albumin excretion rate.

  • *Compared with nonalbuminuric CKD.