Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the study population (participants with type 2 diabetes from the PREDIMED trial) by intervention group

MedDiet+EVOOMedDiet+NutsControl group
(n = 1,282)(n = 1,142)(n = 1,190)P values
Age, years67.5 ± 6.267.1 ± 6.167.5 ± 6.40.15
Men574 (45)593 (52)540 (45)0.001
BMI, kg/m229.8 ± 3.829.5 ± 3.930.2 ± 4.3<0.001
Weight, kg76.4 ± 11.776.9 ± 11.977.2 ± 12.80.25
Waist circumference, cm101.0 ± 10.0100.9 ± 10.7101.2 ± 10.20.05
Tobacco use
 Never smoker796 (62)662 (58)742 (62)
 Current smoker154 (12)139 (12)139 (12)0.14
 Former smoker332 (26)341 (29)309 (26)
Educational level
 Primary/secondary education1,034 (81)880 (77)982 (82)0.004
 University/some college248 (19)262 (23)208 (18)
Overweight/obesity1,157 (90)1,009 (88)1,085 (91)0.07
Hypertension974 (76)850 (74)922 (77)0.22
Dyslipidemia764 (60)673 (59)705 (59)0.94
Medication use
 Antihypertensive agents*629 (49)588 (51)596 (50)0.49
 Statins509 (39)406 (36)451 (37)0.10
HDL-cholesterol, mg/dL50.0 (43.0, 59.0)49.6 (42.2, 58.2)50.0 (42.0, 59.1)0.59
Triglyceride, mg/dL125.5 (92.0, 172.0)124.0 (91.0, 166.0)125.0 (91.0, 170.0)0.30
Plasma fasting glucose, mg/dL136.0 (116.8, 163.0)134.0 (115.0, 162.0)134.0 (115.0, 163.0)0.34
Family history of premature CHD278 (22)263 (23)242 (20)0.28
Leisure-time physical activity, MET min/day177 (70, 325)202 (75, 350)152 (48, 295)0.002
MedDiet adherence (14-point score)8.7 ± 1.88.7 ± 1.98.3 ± 1.8<0.001
  • Data are mean ± SD, median (interquartile range), or n (%).

  • CHD, coronary heart disease.

  • P value for comparisons between groups calculated with χ2 tests for categorical variables or ANOVA test for quantitative variables.

  • *Angiotensin-type 2 receptor blocker and ACE inhibitors.