Table 2

Incidence of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic nephropathy according to intervention group in the PREDIMED trial after a median 6.0 years of follow-up

OutcomesMedDiet+EVOOMedDiet+NutsControl group
Diabetic retinopathy, n1,2821,1421,190
 Cases, n/person-years of follow-up22/7,83020/6,62232/6,856
 Diabetic retinopathy by intervention group, HR (95% CI)
  Crude model0.57 (0.32–0.98)0.62 (0.35–1.07)1 (Ref.)
  Age- and sex-adjusted model0.56 (0.33–0.98)0.64 (0.36–1.12)1 (Ref.)
  Multivariable-adjusted model 10.56 (0.32–0.97)0.63 (0.35–1.11)1 (Ref.)
 MedDiets combined vs. control, HR (95% CI)
  Multivariable-adjusted model 10.60 (0.37–0.96)1 (Ref.)
Diabetic nephropathy, n740672717
 Cases, n/person-years of follow-up64/4,41951/3,98553/4,180
 Diabetic nephropathy by intervention group, HR (95% CI)
  Crude model1.12 (0.77–1.62)0.99 (0.97–1.46)1 (Ref.)
  Age- and sex-adjusted model1.10 (0.76–1.59)1.05 (0.71–1.54)1 (Ref.)
  Multivariable-adjusted model 11.15 (0.79–1.67)1.06 (0.72–1.58)1 (Ref.)
 MedDiets combined vs. control, HR (95% CI)
  Multivariable-adjusted model 11.11 (0.79–1.55)1 (Ref.)
  • Cox regression models with outcome of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic nephropathy and exposure to MedDiet intervention group vs. control group.

  • †Model 1 was additionally adjusted for baseline BMI (continuous variable), waist circumference (continuous variable), smoking (never, current, or former smoker), physical activity in MET min/day (continuous variable), educational level (primary/secondary education or academic/graduate), hypertension (yes or no), dyslipidemia (yes or no), family history of premature coronary heart disease (yes or no), and baseline adherence to the MedDiet (low, <10 points; high, ≥10 points). All models were stratified by recruitment center.