Table 1

Participant characteristics collected at baseline by maternal and paternal diabetes status

Maternal diabetes status (n = 632)Paternal diabetes status (n = 494)
D (n = 215, 34%)A (n = 103, 16%)N (n = 314, 50%)P*Ever (n = 157, 32%)Never (n = 337, 68%)P*
Demographic
 Age at diagnosis (years)13.3 ± 2.214.0 ± 2.113.9 ± 2.10.0021D vs. A, D vs. N13.6 ± 2.113.7 ± 2.20.5978
 Duration of diabetes (months)7.6 ± 5.78.4 ± 6.37.7 ± 5.80.56038.4 ± 6.37.6 ± 5.80.1638
 Male42.329.131.80.0189D vs. A, D vs. N28.040.40.0073
 Race/ethnicity
  Non-Hispanic black31.630.133.80.633330.631.20.8833
  Hispanic40.543.737.340.138.9
  Non-Hispanic white20.517.523.221.023.1
  Other7.48.75.78.36.8
Parental (self-report)
 Maternal BMI (kg/m2)34.5 ± 9.636.0 ± 9.633.6 ± 8.70.085735.2 ± 9.733.6 ± 8.80.0777
 Maternal age at birth (years)28.7 ± 6.026.3 ± 5.825.8 ± 5.7<0.0001D vs. A, D vs. N27.9 ± 6.126.7 ± 5.70.0302
 Paternal age at birth (years)31.7 ± 7.429.5 ± 6.828.6 ± 6.5<0.0001D vs. A, D vs. N31.7 ± 8.029.1 ± 6.30.0001
Anthropometric
 Birth weight at term (g)3,678 ± 7883,386 ± 6603,269 ± 6290.0003D vs. N3,247 ± 7653,351 ± 8200.3190
 BMI z score2.3 ± 0.52.2 ± 0.52.2 ± 0.50.45712.2 ± 0.52.2 ± 0.50.2543
 % body fat from DXA37.5 ± 6.638.2 ± 6.237.6 ± 5.90.795537.9 ± 6.337.4 ± 6.30.6285
 Waist circumference (cm)107.5 ± 16.4109.1 ± 15.3109.5 ± 17.40.8865109.8 ± 18.2107.9 ± 15.40.0892
Metabolic
 HbA1c (%)6.2 ± 0.86.1 ± 0.75.9 ± 0.7<0.0001D vs. A, D vs. N, A vs. N6.1 ± 0.86.0 ± 0.70.0241
 HbA1c (mmol/mol)44.2 ± 8.542.6 ± 7.840.8 ± 7.643.3 ± 8.241.5 ± 7.8
 Fasting blood glucose (mg/dL)116.1 ± 26.8114.6 ± 25.9105.4 ± 21.7<0.0001D vs. N, A vs. N111.4 ± 25.4110.1 ± 24.90.5071
 2-h blood glucose (mg/dL)217.3 ± 66.8213.4 ± 60.5190.4 ± 60.6<0.0001D vs. N, A vs. N209.7 ± 61.7199.2 ± 64.20.1076
  • Data are mean ± SD or %. Models evaluating anthropometric and metabolic outcomes were adjusted for participant’s sex, race/ethnicity, and age at baseline. If the overall test was significant, pairwise comparisons across the three maternal diabetes status categories were performed and significant comparisons were reported. A, after pregnancy; D, during pregnancy; N, never.

  • *P values from generalized linear models examining differences in TODAY participants by maternal or paternal diabetes status; P values <0.05 (in boldface type) are considered statistically significant.

  • †“Other” race/ethnicity was excluded from testing.

  • ‡"At term" defined as within 2 weeks of due date.