Table 2

Baseline participant anthropometric and metabolic outcomes by joint parental diabetes status*

Parental diabetes status (n = 494)
B (n = 79)MO (n = 174)FO (n = 78)N (n = 163)P
Anthropometric
 Birth weight at term (g)3,427 ± 6763,703 ± 7803,180 ± 6873,312 ± 5880.0009B vs. FO, MO vs. FO, MO vs. N
 BMI z score2.3 ± 0.52.2 ± 0.42.2 ± 0.52.2 ± 0.50.5600
 % body fat from DXA37.9 ± 6.437.5 ± 6.837.9 ± 6.337.2 ± 5.80.8361
 Waist circumference (cm)108.8 ± 18.4107.9 ± 14.6110.8 ± 18.2107.9 ± 16.30.4089
Metabolic
 HbA1c (%)6.1 ± 0.86.1 ± 0.86.1 ± 0.75.8 ± 0.6<0.0001B vs. N, MO vs. N, FO vs. N
 HbA1c (mmol/mol)43.7 ± 8.343.1 ± 8.442.9 ± 8.239.8 ± 6.8
 Fasting blood glucose (mg/dL)114.7 ± 25.4115.8 ± 27.9108.0 ± 25.2104.1 ± 19.6<0.0001B vs. N, MO vs. FO, MO vs. N
 2-h blood glucose (mg/dL)210.9 ± 65.0214.2 ± 65.0208.6 ± 58.5183.4 ± 59.5<0.0001B vs. N, MO vs. N, FO vs. N
 Insulin sensitivity [1/IF] (mL/µU)0.047 ± 0.0300.048 ± 0.0330.052 ± 0.0370.047 ± 0.0370.4961
 CPI [∆C30/∆G30] (ng/mL per mg/dL)0.062 ± 0.0510.066 ± 0.0620.077 ± 0.0680.098 ± 0.084<0.0001B vs. N, MO vs. N, FO vs. N
 CPoDI [1/IF × ∆C30/∆G30]0.0028 ± 0.00260.0029 ± 0.00270.0035 ± 0.00350.0040 ± 0.00350.0074B vs. N, MO vs. N
  • Data are mean ± SD. B, both parents; FO, father only; MO, mother only; N, neither.

  • *Parental diabetes status determined from self-report as ever or never diagnosed with diabetes.

  • P values from generalized linear models examining differences in TODAY participants by parental diabetes status; P values <0.05 (in boldface type) were considered statistically significant. Models were adjusted for participant’s sex, race/ethnicity, and age at baseline. If the overall test was significant, pairwise comparisons were performed and significant comparisons were reported.

  • ‡Variables were log transformed to normalize the distributions.