Table 1

Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of the participants in the intervention and control groups

Intervention group (n = 144)Control group (n = 125)P value
Age (years)32.3 (4.9)32.6 (4.5)0.60
Body weight (kg)
 Prepregnancy87.4 (18.1)88.3 (16.4)0.67
 At baseline89.2 (17.9)89.3 (15.9)0.98
Height (m)1.66 (0.07)1.66 (0.06)0.81
BMI (kg/m2)
 Prepregnancy31.5 (6.0)32.0 (5.5)0.54
 At baseline32.2 (5.9)32.3 (5.4)0.84
Gestational age at baseline (weeks)13.2 (12.3–14.8)13.3 (11.9–14.4)
Educational status at baseline, n (%)0.60
 Basic education only4 (3)3 (2)
 Vocational education38 (26)26 (21)
 Upper secondary school13 (9)8 (7)
 Upper secondary school and vocational education46 (32)50 (41)
 Higher education43 (30)35 (29)
Previous deliveries, n (%)0.99
 None61 (42)52 (42)
 142 (29)38 (30)
 229 (20)24 (19)
 3+12 (8)11 (9)
Prior GDM, n (%)50 (35)38 (30)0.45
Blood pressure
 Systolic (mmHg)123 (13)121 (14)0.21
 Diastolic (mmHg)78 (9)77 (9)0.28
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)4.94 (0.91)4.92 (0.86)0.88
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.73 (0.33)1.75 (0.30)0.61
Total triglycerides (mmol/L)1.31 (0.52)1.38 (0.75)0.37
Fasting glucose (mmol/L)4.87 (0.24)4.89 (0.24)0.45
2-h glucose (mmol/L)5.78 (1.05)5.98 (1.09)0.13
HbA1c
 %5.2 (0.3)5.2 (0.3)0.47
 mmol/mol33.5 (3.0)33.2 (3.0)0.53
Insulin (mU/L)8.48 (4.56)8.44 (4.56)0.98
HOMA-IR1.74 (0.94)1.79 (0.90)0.67
Smoking, n (%)6 (4)4 (3)0.68
No alcohol use, n (%)139 (97)114 (94)0.37
Dietary index at baseline10.1 (2.9)9.7 (2.5)0.30
Physical activity at baseline (min/week)60 (30–130)60 (30–150)0.92
  • Data are mean (SD) or median (IQR), unless otherwise indicated. HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; HOMA-IR, HOMA for insulin resistance.