Table 3

Biochemical parameters at baseline and end of intervention for completers only

VariablesBaselineEnd of interventionBaseline vs. end of intervention
LGIHFPLGIHFPLGIHF
nMean (SD)nMean (SD)nMean (SD)nMean (SD)nPnP
HbA1c (%)654.9 (0.3)584.9 (0.3)0.998635.1 (0.3)585.1 (0.4)0.86963<0.001560.002
HbA1c (mmol/mol)6030.2 (3.4)5330.4 (3.5)0.7236031.7 (3.7)5831.5 (5.2)0.806520.001470.340
Fructosamine (μmol/L)39193.6 (20.0)35194.9 (15.4)0.76153178.3 (16.5)48183.6 (16.1)0.10937<0.001350.019
Adiponectin (μg/mL)6513.7 (6.8)5812.8 (6.1)0.4476212.1 (5.7)5912.1 (5.7)0.996620.023570.377
25-(OH)vitamin D (nmol/L)6565.1 (20.7)5757.5 (17.3)0.0336273.2 (17.1)5967.5 (15.2)0.055620.00856<0.001
25-(OH)vitamin D (ng/mL)6526.0 (8.3)5723.0 (7.0)0.0336229.3 (6.8)5927.0 (6.0)0.055620.00856<0.001
C-peptide (nmol/L)65431.3 (180.6)57497.1 (334.6)0.17262852.5 (462.3)58817.0 (560.4)0.70562<0.00155<0.001
C-reactive protein (mg/L)654.5 (4.7)586.1 (6.2)0.121623.4 (2.0)604.8 (5.5)0.053620.051580.174
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)655.4 (0.9)575.5 (0.9)0.603636.9 (1.14)597.0 (1.1)0.59663<0.00156<0.001
 Triglycerides (mmol/L)651.3 (0.5)571.3 (0.4)0.823632.5 (0.8)592.5 (9.5)0.74863<0.00156<0.001
 HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)652.1 (0.4)582.2 (0.4)0.466632.0 (0.4)592.2 (0.5)0.139630.052570.957
 LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)652.7 (0.8)572.7 (0.8)0.787633.7 (1.1)573.6 (0.8)0.80963<0.00154<0.001
Iron (μmol/L)6419.0 (5.4)5918.7 (5.4)0.8066018.7 (7.3)5919.8 (10.0)0.495590.362580.395
Transferrin (g/L)652.9 (0.4)593.5 (4.2)0.257604.0 (0.6)584.0 (0.6)0.77560<0.001570.408
Transferrin saturation (%)6426.5 (9.0)5925.8 (8.8)0.6706019.4 (9.3)5820.2 (11.6)0.67659<0.001570.002
Serum ferritin (μg/L)6541.3 (35.6)5944.9 (31.3)0.5566024.4 (15.9)5823.2 (20.8)0.72660<0.00157<0.001
Free fatty acids (μmol/L)65392.4 (142.6)57430.1 (135.4)0.13861400.0 (136.4)59405.5 (134.1)0.824610.721560.408
Vitamin B12 (pmol/L)65276.3 (107.5)58274.4 (109.5)0.92461233.6 (95.8)59241.6 (109.3)0.66961<0.00157<0.001
Serum folate (nmol/L)6540.1 (6.7)5839.7 (6.9)0.7326040.7 (6.3)5939.4 (7.1)0.273600.488570.900
Red blood cell folate (nmol/L)651,534.6 (391.6)581,558.8 (299.7)0.705591,781.5 (287.3)581,712.2 (256.9)0.17259<0.00157<0.001
  • One-way ANOVA was used to test for difference between groups at baseline and at the end of intervention. Paired-samples t test was used to test for difference within group between baseline and end of intervention.