Table 4

Pregnancy outcomes

VariablesIntention to treatCompleters only
LGIHFPLGIHFP
nValuenValuenValuenValue
Gestational age (weeks)7239.6 (1.3)6739.4 (1.4)0.5906539.6 (1.1)6039.4 (1.4)0.404
Birth weight (g)723,450 (410)673,430 (510)0.845653,430 (390)603,380 (490)0.514
Birth weight centile7247.4 (25.8)6744.8 (26.6)0.5586546.2 (25.4)6041.8 (25.6)0.330
Birth weight z score720.31 (0.90)670.24 (1.07)0.697650.29 (0.83)600.13 (1.05)0.367
Ponderal index (kg/m3)7227.3 (2.3)6727.0 (2.4)0.4446527.1 (2.2)6026.9 (2.3)0.672
% body fat at birth5610.2 (4.1)4010.0 (3.5)0.7895610.2 (4.1)4010.0 (3.5)0.789
Small for gestational age725.6677.50.648656.2608.30.638
Large for gestational age725.6676.00.916653.1603.20.935
Macrosomia729.76714.90.349657.76011.70.451
Gestational weight gain (kg)6811.4 (5.7)6111.0 (5.9)0.6876411.0 (5.3)5910.7 (5.7)0.794
 Below target35.332.837.533.9
 Within target39.741.00.95540.642.40.914
 Above target25.026.221.923.7
Late (26–28 weeks) GDM diagnosis (%)7213.96713.40.9176513.86015.00.754
Women requiring insulin treatment (n)72166790.17865146090.346
Cesarean delivery7230.66723.90.3786532.36025.00.367
Emergency cesarean7213.96713.40.5496513.860150.404
Neonatal ICU admission725.66614.90.067656.25913.30.173
  • Data are presented as mean (SD) for continuous variables and percentages for categorical variables. P value calculated using one-way ANOVA for continuous variables and Pearson χ2 for categorical variables. ICU, intensive care unit.