Table 1

Characteristics of diet-controlled mothers with GDM and infant outcomes, including within- and between-group fasting blood measure comparisons at 31 and 37 weeks’ gestation (mean ± SEM; α <0.05 was significant)

31 weeks’ gestation37 weeks’ gestationDelivery/2 weeks postnatal
CHOICELC/CONVCHOICELC/CONVCHOICELC/CONV
Subjects
n66
 Age (years)30 ± 128 ± 2
 Study baseline, gestational age (weeks)31.7 ± 131.2 ± 0.4
 BMI (kg/m2), study entry34.3 ± 1.633.4 ± 1.4
 Weight (kg), study entry91.2 ± 5.886.5 ± 5.1
 Gravida/para3/12/1
Maternal at delivery
 Gestational age, delivery (weeks)40.5 ± 0.539.2 ± 0.4
 BMI (kg/m2), delivery35.4 ± 1.734.2 ± 1.4
 Weight (kg), delivery94.0 ± 6.188.3 ± 4.7
 Weight gain while in study (kg)2.3 ± 1.21.7 ± 1.6
 Number of cesarean deliveries02
Infant outcomes, delivery
 Sex (male/female)3/32/4
 Weight (g)3,273.0 ± 104.03,421.0 ± 186.3
 Length (cm)50.93 ± 0.6550.38 ± 1.16
Infant measures, 2 weeks postnatal
 Weight (g)3,452 ± 1133,683 ± 292
 Adiposity (g), PEAPOD392 ± 43510 ± 124
 Fat-free mass (g), PEAPOD3,148 ± 963,188 ± 253
 % body fat, PEAPOD10.1 ± 1.412.6 ± 2.0
Blood measures
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL)224 ± 11235 ± 13241 ± 12246 ± 11
 HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)52 ± 459 ± 454 ± 562 ± 3
 Non-HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)172 ± 10175 ± 11186 ± 9185 ± 10
 LDL cholesterol (mg/dL)130 ± 13142 ± 12136 ± 15151 ± 11
 Oxidized LDL (mg/dL)62.2 ± 6.570.2 ± 7.069.8 ± 7.666.2 ± 5.0
 IDL (mg/dL)29 ± 427 ± 431 ± 329 ± 3
 VLDL (mg/dL)42 ± 933 ± 350 ± 1034 ± 3
 Apolipoprotein B (mg/dL)114 ± 7122 ± 7122 ± 7125 ± 7
 Apolipoprotein A1 (mg/dL)156 ± 4163 ± 7163 ± 4169 ± 5
 Lp(a)4.5 ± 1.17.3 ± 1.65.7 ± 0.97.0 ± 1.5
 Glucose (mg/dL)79.3 ± 2.4*82 ± 3.5*75 ± 286 ± 3
 Insulin (μU/mL)19.0 ± 3.326.0 ± 3.321 ± 429 ± 5
 HOMA-IR, calculated3.7 ± 0.75.2 ± 0.84.0 ± 0.86.1 ± 1.0
 TGs (mg/dL)220 ± 29*201 ± 26*280 ± 44235 ± 29
 FFAs (μEq/L)591 ± 82§513 ± 69394 ± 11413 ± 56
AT
 Lipolysis, glycerol release (% suppression)55.8 ± 3.031.1 ± 10
 IL1-β0.11 ± 0.040.87 ± 0.30
 TNF-α0.39 ± 0.070.98 ± 0.20
 TLR-40.58 ± 0.081.15 ± 0.17
 CD11B0.50 ± 0.121.19 ± 0.12
 CD11C0.28 ± 0.091.01 ± 0.19
 CD1D0.36 ± 0.081.01 ± 0.17
 CD340.65 ± 0.110.75 ± 0.16
 ADRA2A0.76 ± 0.130.72 ± 0.15
 ADRAB20.56 ± 0.110.60 ± 0.13
 mTOR0.62 ± 0.120.83 ± 0.09
 GPR410.63 ± 0.190.53 ± 0.16
 GPR430.13 ± 0.030.90 ± 0.28
 MCP10.72 ± 0.190.42 ± 0.06
 IL-61.12 ± 0.120.76 ± 0.12
 IL-100.90 ± 0.170.53 ± 0.13
 HSL0.59 ± 0.130.75 ± 0.07
 Adiponectin0.61 ± 0.150.55 ± 0.10
  • ADRA2A, α-2A adrenergic receptor; ADRAB2, α-2B adrenergic receptor; HSL, hormone-sensitive lipase; MCP1, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1; mTOR, mammalian target of raptamycin.

  • * P < 0.05 by paired Student t test, 31 vs. 37 weeks.

  • P < 0.05 by Student t test for independent group, change from 31 to 37 weeks, CHOICE vs. LC/CONV.

  • HOMA-IR was calculated as (fasting insulin [μU/mL]) * (fasting glucose [mg/dL] * 0.05551)/22.5.

  • § P = 0.06 by Student t test for independent group, change from 31 to 37 weeks, CHOICE vs. LC/CONV.

  • P < 0.05 by Student t test for independent group, CHOICE vs. LC/CONV at 37 weeks.