Table 1

Age-standardized baseline characteristics according to quintiles of LCD scores among women with a history of GDMa,b

CharacteristicQuintiles of overall LCD score
Quintile 1Quintile 2Quintile 3Quintile 4Quintile 5
(n = 976)(n = 734)(n = 988)(n = 955)(n = 849)
Low carbohydrate intake (%)c0.31.72.49.733.7
Age (years)38.3 (4.7)37.8 (4.6)37.8 (4.7)37.8 (4.8)38.1 (4.9)
Age at first birth (years)27.8 (4.9)27.6 (4.7)27.4 (4.8)27.4 (4.8)27.3 (5.0)
Parity >1 (%)79.679.583.681.580.8
White race (%)89.392.193.494.593.3
Family history of diabetes (%)24.526.525.825.133.4
Current oral contraceptive use (%)8.38.59.07.88.9
Current smoking (%)11.47.59.511.715.3
Alcohol (g/day)1.9 (3.7)2.2 (4.2)2.7 (5.7)2.8 (5.4)2.0 (4.3)
BMI (kg/m2)25.4 (5.5)26.2 (5.8)26.6 (6.0)27.4 (6.2)29.1 (6.9)
Physical activity (MET h/week)19.2 (23.1)16.4 (20.4)16.6 (19.4)16.5 (22.0)15.4 (19.1)
Total calories (kcal/day)1,997.1 (581.4)1,942.5 (546.9)1,927.5 (564.6)1,865.9 (547.3)1,816.1 (571.1)
Carbohydrates (% energy)57.3 (5.9)52.3 (4.9)49.6 (4.6)46.0 (5.0)42.0 (6.4)
Total protein (% energy)17.0 (2.9)19.0 (3.0)19.3 (3.1)20.2 (3.2)21.6 (2.9)
Animal protein (% energy)11.6 (3.0)13.7 (3.1)14.2 (3.2)15.2 (3.4)16.9 (3.3)
Vegetable protein (% energy)5.4 (1.4)5.3 (1.0)5.1 (1.0)5.0 (1.0)4.7 (1.0)
Total fat (% energy)27.3 (4.7)29.8 (4.7)31.9 (4.4)34.4 (4.9)36.9 (5.3)
Animal fat (% energy)14.3 (4.0)16.4 (3.6)17.8 (3.5)19.5 (4.0)22.1 (4.9)
Vegetable fat (% energy)13.0 (3.7)13.5 (3.9)14.1 (4.0)14.8 (4.6)14.8 (4.2)
SFA (% energy)9.5 (2.1)10.4 (2.1)11.2 (2.0)12.1 (2.2)13.0 (2.4)
MUFA (% energy)10.4 (2.0)11.4 (2.1)12.2 (2.0)13.2 (2.3)14.3 (2.4)
PUFA (% energy)4.9 (1.2)5.3 (1.3)5.6 (1.3)6.0 (1.5)6.3 (1.5)
Trans fat (% energy)1.4 (0.5)1.5 (0.5)1.7 (0.6)1.8 (0.6)1.9 (0.6)
Cholesterol (mg/day)d198.0 (58.2)229.8 (56.0)245.2 (54.4)268.3 (66.6)299.6 (84.0)
Total fiber (g/day)d19.7 (6.5)19.1 (4.8)18.5 (4.8)17.7 (4.5)16.7 (4.2)
Glycemic indexd55.0 (3.1)54.1 (3.1)53.7 (3.0)53.2 (3.4)52.8 (4.1)
Glycemic loadd141.5 (18.1)127.3 (15.4)119.8 (13.9)110.3 (14.9)100.5 (18.6)
Heme iron (mg/day)d0.9 (0.3)1.1 (0.3)1.1 (0.3)1.3 (0.4)1.5 (0.4)
Red meat (servings/day)0.8 (0.6)0.9 (0.6)1.0 (0.6)1.1 (0.6)1.3 (0.7)
Poultry (servings/day)0.4 (0.3)0.5 (0.3)0.5 (0.3)0.5 (0.3)0.5 (0.4)
Fish (servings/day)0.2 (0.2)0.2 (0.2)0.2 (0.2)0.2 (0.2)0.3 (0.2)
Eggs (servings/day)0.2 (0.2)0.2 (0.2)0.2 (0.2)0.2 (0.2)0.3 (0.3)
Dairy (servings/day)2.8 (2.3)3.0 (2.3)2.8 (2.0)2.7 (1.9)2.7 (2.1)
Fruits (servings/day)1.5 (1.2)1.4 (0.9)1.3 (0.9)1.1 (0.8)0.9 (0.7)
Vegetables (servings/day)3.7 (2.4)3.6 (2.0)3.5 (2.1)3.5 (2.0)3.4 (2.0)
Nuts (servings/day)0.3 (0.3)0.3 (0.3)0.3 (0.3)0.3 (0.5)0.3 (0.4)
Legumes (servings/day)0.5 (0.4)0.4 (0.3)0.4 (0.3)0.4 (0.3)0.4 (0.3)
Whole grains (servings/day)1.2 (1.1)1.2 (1.0)1.1 (1.1)0.9 (0.9)0.9 (0.8)
SSBs (servings/day)1.0 (1.4)0.5 (0.9)0.4 (0.6)0.2 (0.5)0.2 (0.4)
  • Data are mean (SD) unless otherwise specified.

  • All comparisons across quintiles are significant except age at first birth, multiparity (parity >1), current oral contraceptive use, and nut consumption.

  • MUFA, monounsaturated fatty acids; PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids; SFA, saturated fatty acids; SSBs, sugar-sweetened beverages.

  • aBaseline was defined as 1991 for prevalent GDM and the year of the index pregnancy for incident GDM.

  • bThe baseline characteristics of the cohort were age adjusted according to 5-year age-groups by direct standardization to the entire cohort.

  • cDefined as carbohydrate intake <40% of energy.

  • dValue is energy adjusted using the residual method (18).