Table 1

Association between SAT, VAT, and TAT and GDM

Adipose tissue assessedQuartileSample size (n)Depth (cm)Composite outcome of IFG, GIGT, or GDM at 24–28 weeks
N (%)OR (95% CI)
UnadjustedAdjusted
SATQ1124≤1.38 (6.5)1.0 (Ref.)1.0 (Ref.)
Q21181.4–1.79 (7.6)2.0 (0.44–3.3)1.0 (0.36–2.8)
Q31211.8–2.312 (9.9)1.6 (0.64–4.2)1.2 (0.45–3.3)
Q4122>2.323 (18.9)3.4 (1.5–8.3)1.8 (0.70–4.8)
VATQ1120≤3.06 (5.0)1.0 (Ref.)1.0 (Ref.)
Q21223.1–3.89 (7.5)1.5 (0.53–4.6)1.3 (0.45–4.0)
Q31213.9–4.88 (6.6)1.3 (0.45–4.2)1.1 (0.35–3.4)
Q4122>4.829 (23.4)5.9 (2.5–16.4)3.1 (1.1–9.5)
TATQ1121≤4.58 (6.6)1.0 (Ref.)1.0 (Ref.)
Q21224.6–5.54 (3.3)0.48 (0.13–1.6)1.0 (0.12–1.5)
Q31206.6–7.010 (8.3)1.3 (0.49–3.5)1.0 (0.39–2.9)
Q4122>7.030 (24.2)4.6 (2.1–11.2)2.7 (1.1–7.8)
GDM at 24–28 weeks using the CDA criteria (10)
SATQ1124≤1.37 (5.7)1.0 (Ref.)1.0 (Ref.)
Q21181.4–1.79 (7.6)1.4 (0.50–4.0)1.2 (0.42–3.4)
Q31211.8–2.312 (9.9)1.8 (0.71–5.1)1.4 (0.53–4.2)
Q4122>2.317 (14.0)2.7 (1.1–7.2)1.5 (0.56–4.5)
VATQ1120≤3.05 (4.2)1.0 (Ref.)1.0 (Ref.)
Q21223.1–3.88 (6.6)1.6 (0.52–5.5)1.4 (0.46–4.9)
Q31213.9–4.86 (5.0)1.2 (0.35–4.3)1.0 (0.30–3.7)
Q4122>4.826 (21.3)6.2 (2.5–19.0)4.2 (1.4–14.2)
TATQ1121≤4.57 (5.8)1.0 (Ref.)1.0 (Ref.)
Q21224.6–5.54 (3.3)1.0 (0.14–1.9)1.0 (0.13–1.8)
Q31206.6–7.09 (7.5)1.3 (0.48–3.8)1.1 (0.39–3.3)
Q4122>7.025 (20.5)4.2 (1.8–10.9)3.0 (1.1–8.9)
GDM at 24–28 weeks using the IADPSG criteria (11)
SATQ1124≤1.314 (11.3)1.0 (Ref.)1.0 (Ref.)
Q21181.4–1.717 (14.4)1.3 (0.62–2.9)1.2 (0.56–2.7)
Q31211.8–2.322 (18.2)1.8 (0.86–3.7)1.5 (0.73–3.3)
Q4122>2.332 (26.2)2.8 (1.4–5.7)2.0 (0.95–4.5)
VATQ1120≤3.012 (10.0)1.0 (Ref.)1.0 (Ref.)
Q21223.1–3.818 (14.8)1.6 (0.72–3.5)1.5 (0.67–3.3)
Q31213.9–4.816 (13.2)1.4 (0.62–3.1)1.3 (0.57–2.9)
Q4122>4.839 (32.0)4.2 (2.1–8.9)3.4 (1.5–8.0)
TATQ1121≤4.515 (12.4)1.0 (Ref.)1.0 (Ref.)
Q21224.6–5.510 (8.2)1.0 (0.30–1.5)1.0 (0.26–1.5)
Q31206.6–7.019 (15.8)1.3 (0.64–2.8)1.3 (0.60–2.7)
Q4122>7.041 (33.6)3.6 (1.9–7.1)3.4 (1.6–7.7)
  • Adipose tissue depth was measured at 11–14 weeks’ gestation, and the subsequent risk of the composite outcome of IFG, GIGT, or GDM at 24–28 weeks’ gestation was assessed among 485 pregnant women. ORs were adjusted for maternal age, ethnicity, family history of type 2 DM, BMI at 11–14 weeks’ gestation, and change in BMI between 11–14 weeks’ gestation and 24–28 weeks’ gestation.

  • CDA, Canadian Diabetes Association.