Table 1

Baseline characteristics by treatment condition: the GEM trial

Intervention, N = 1,087Usual care, N = 1,193Entire sample, N = 2,280
n (%)n (%)n (%)
Age (years)
 18–2459 (5.4)58 (4.9)117 (5.1)
 25–29238 (21.9)289 (24.2)527 (23.1)
 30–34425 (39.1)425 (35.6)850 (37.3)
 35–39280 (25.8)330 (27.7)610 (26.8)
 40–5085 (7.8)91 (7.6)176 (7.7)
Race-ethnicity
 Asian458 (42.1)481 (40.3)939 (41.2)
 Non-Hispanic white268 (24.7)305 (25.6)573 (25.1)
 Hispanic236 (21.7)270 (22.6)506 (22.2)
 African American47 (4.3)57 (4.8)104 (4.6)
 Multiracial37 (3.4)37 (3.1)74 (3.3)
 Other26 (2.4)16 (1.3)42 (1.8)
 Pacific Islander13 (1.2)25 (2.1)38 (1.7)
 Missing2 (0.2)2 (0.2)4 (0.2)
Pregravid BMI (kg/m2)
 15.9–19.961 (5.6)59 (5.0)120 (5.3)
 20.0–24.9324 (29.8)343 (28.8)667 (29.3)
 25.0–29.9319 (29.4)352 (29.5)671 (29.4)
 30.0–34.9201 (18.5)216 (18.1)417 (18.3)
 35.0–59.7182 (16.7)223 (18.7)405 (17.8)
Parity
 0451 (41.5)501 (42.0)952 (41.8)
 1363 (33.4)398 (33.4)761 (33.4)
 2174 (16.0)157 (13.2)331 (14.5)
 3+84 (7.7)117 (9.8)201 (8.8)
 Missing15 (1.4)20 (1.7)35 (1.5)
Hypertension
 Yes80 (7.4)82 (6.9)162 (7.1)
 No1,005 (92.5)1,111 (93.1)2,116 (92.8)
 Missing2 (0.2)0 (0)2 (0.1)
Depression
 Yes206 (19.0)237 (19.9)443 (19.4)
 No833 (76.6)887 (74.4)1,720 (75.4)
 Missing48 (4.4)69 (5.8)117 (5.1)
Mean (SD)Mean (SD)
Pregravid body weight (kg)73.5 (19.9)74.7 (20.2)74.2 (20.0)
Pregravid BMI (kg/m2)28.5 (6.8)28.9 (6.9)28.7 (6.8)
BMI at GDM diagnosis (kg/m2)31.0 (6.5)31.4 (6.4)31.2 (6.5)
Gestational age at GDM diagnosis (weeks)25.2 (6.4)25.3 (6.6)25.3 (6.5)
100-g, 3-h OGTT
 Fasting glucose (mmol/L)*5.0 (0.7)5.1 (0.7)5.1 (0.7)
 1-h glucose (mmol/L)11.0 (1.4)11.1 (1.5)11.0 (1.4)
 2-h glucose (mmol/L)9.8 (1.5)9.8 (1.5)9.8 (1.5)
 3-h glucose (mmol/L)*7.3 (1.8)7.1 (1.8)7.2 (1.8)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)116.7 (13.0)116.7 (13.6)116.7 (13.3)
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)72.9 (10.0)72.6 (10.2)72.7 (10.1)
Daily total energy intake (kcal/day)1,743.5 (662.5)1,736.7 (660.7)1,740.0 (661.4)
Daily percent of kcal from fat42.2 (7.0)42.2 (7.0)42.2 (7.0)
Walking (min/week)446.3 (355.2)427.9 (364.1)436.8 (359.8)
Moderate physical activity (min/week)38.2 (62.9)32.1 (55.8)35.1 (59.4)
Vigorous physical activity (min/week)23.5 (53.3)19.0 (46.2)21.2 (49.8)
Total volume of physical activity (MET min/week)1,667.9 (1,312.9)1,554.4 (1,212.6)1,609.2 (1,262.7)
  • Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg, or use of antihypertensive medications. Depression was defined as score ≥10 on PHQ-8 or PHQ-9, physician diagnosis, or use of antidepressant medications. OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test.

  • *P < 0.05 for the comparison with the intervention condition by two-tailed Student t test. All other comparisons had a P ≥ 0.05.

  • †639 women in the intervention and 668 women in usual care with valid diet data at baseline and 6 months postpartum (e.g., those with daily total energy intake ≥600 and ≤4,000 kcal at both time points).

  • ‡522 women in the intervention and 560 women in usual care with valid physical activity data at baseline and 6 months postpartum (e.g., those with ≤20 h/week of total physical activity and ≤9 h/week of moderate physical activity at both time points).