Table 3

Mean changes in physical activity and diet from pregnancy to 6 months postpartum with mean differences between conditions: the GEM trial

Primary analysisSensitivity analysis
Self-reported dataSelf-reported or imputed data
InterventionUsual careInterventionUsual care
nMean (SD)nMean (SD)Adjusted* mean condition difference (95% CI)nMean (SD)nMean (SD)Adjusted* mean condition difference (95% CI)
Moderate activity (min/week)
 During pregnancy52238.2 (62.9)56032.1 (55.8)1,08339.1 (2.6)1,18734.1 (2.5)
 6 months postpartum52242.8 (67.2)56033.7 (61.8)1,08347.0 (2.5)1,18735.4 (3.1)
 Mean change (95% CI)4.5 (−1.8, 10.8)1.6 (−4.5, 7.7)7.0 (−0.8, 14.7)8.0 (1.8, 14.1)1.9 (−6.5, 10.3)9.5 (0.7, 18.3)
Vigorous activity (min/week)
 During pregnancy52223.5 (53.3)56019.0 (46.2)1,08322.9 (1.8)1,18719.6 (1.6)
 6 months postpartum52247.2 (78.9)56030.6 (68.4)1,08347.6 (2.9)1,18732.5 (2.9)
 Mean change (95% CI)23.7 (16.9, 30.5)11.7 (5.1, 18.2)15.4 (4.9, 25.8)24.9 (18.0, 31.7)13.3 (6.3, 20.3)14.0 (5.0, 22.9)
Total volume of physical activity (MET min/week)
 During pregnancy5221,667.9 (1,312.9)5601,554.4 (1,212.6)1,816.6 (58.6)1,781.7 (53.3)
 6 months postpartum5221,753.9 (1,300.5)5601,610.0 (1,354.7)1,843.0 (64.4)1,727.6 (54.0)
 Mean change (95% CI)88.0 (−48.5, 224.6)58.4 (−79.1, 195.9)113.8 (−78.0, 305.6)1,08333.5 (−135.8, 202.8)1,187−47.4 (−203.0, 108.3)100.5 (−83.7, 284.7)
Daily total energy intake (kcal)
 During pregnancy6391,763.1 (655.7)6681,740.2 (644.1)1,754.6 (28.4)1,785.7 (26.4)
 6 months postpartum6391,591.4 (614.7)6681,583.4 (608.0)1,580.4 (27.5)1,622.7 (25.9)
 Mean change (95% CI)−171.8 (−221.2, −122.4)−153.9 (−203.7, −104.1)−5.3 (−64.6, 53.9)1,083−175.5 (−232.9, −118.1)1,187−162.7 (−214.8, −110.6)−26.6 (−88.3, 35.1)
Daily percent of calories from fat
 During pregnancy63942.1 (6.9)66842.2 (7.0)42.0 (0.3)42.2 (0.3)
 6 months postpartum63940.2 (6.3)66839.8 (6.7)40.1 (0.3)39.8 (0.3)
 Mean change (95% CI)−1.8 (−2.5, −1.1)−2.3 (−3.0, −1.6)0.4 (−0.3, 1.1)1,083−2.0 (−2.6, −1.3)1,187−2.4 (−3.1, −1.8)0.3 (−0.4, 1.1)
  • *Adjusted for baseline values.