Table 2

Treatment stratified by type of diabetes and timing of GDM diagnosis

Maternal demographics (N = 4,873)Type 2 diabetes (n = 65)GDM P value
<12 weeks (n = 68)12–23 weeks (n = 1,247)≥24 weeks (n = 3,493)
Insulin treatment (%)100.075.0*59.142.7<0.0001
Maximum daily insulin dose (units)106* (69–165)48* (20–89)33* (16–62)20 (10–38)<0.0001
Gestation insulin commenced (weeks)8.7 ± 4.3*15.2 ± 8.9*25.3 ± 5.4*33.0 ± 3.2<0.0001
Gestation GDM diagnosis (weeks)8.1 ± 2.618.0 ± 2.829.5 ± 2.7
Antenatal OGTT
 0 min5.3 ± 1.5*4.9 ± 1.04.8 ± 1.70.04
 60 min10.8 ± 3.0*10.0 ± 1.89.9 ± 1.80.001
 120 min9.1 ± 3.18.8 ± 2.3*8.5 ± 1.90.001
AUC glucose (units)1,078 ± 300*1,004 ± 159*988 ± 153<0.0001
HbA1c (%)6.0 ± 0.95.7 ± 1.3*5.2 ± 0.6*5.3 ± 0.50.0001
  • Data are presented as mean ± SD or median (interquartile range), unless otherwise indicated. HbA1c level was calculated at the time of GDM diagnosis and the initial antenatal visit for women with type 2 diabetes; maximum insulin dose was calculated at the time of confinement.

  • *Different from GDM diagnosed after 24 weeks of gestation (comparator group).