Table 4

Neonatal outcomes for type 2 diabetes and GDM stratified by timing of diagnosis

Neonatal complicationsT2DM (n = 65)GDM P value
<12 weeks (n = 68)12–23 weeks (n = 1,247)≥24 weeks (n = 3,493)
Macrosomia21.8*20.3*9.010.0<0.0001
LGA39.6*32.821.522.80.008
Stillbirth1.83.40.80.30.2
Jaundice41.7*28.1*24.819.8<0.0001
Neonatal intensive care admission38.539.738.3*34.00.04
Respiratory distress syndrome12.3*7.4*3.84.00.005
Hypoglycemia14.920.720.2*17.20.1
SGA0.05.28.57.30.2
  • Data are reported as %. LGA/SGA were defined as sex- and gestational age–specific neonatal birth weight >90th centile (LGA) or <10th centile (SGA) for New South Wales, Australia, population (20); macrosomia was defined as ≥4,000 g; neonatal hypoglycemia was defined as a BGL<2.5 mmol/L.

  • *Different from GDM diagnosed after 24 weeks of gestation (comparator group).