Table 2

Laboratory parameters, sexual questionnaire score, body composition, insulin sensitivity, and inflammatory mediators after testosterone and placebo treatment

Testosterone (n = 20)Placebo (n = 14)Mean difference (95% CI)P
Baseline24 weeksPBaseline24 weeksP
Weight (kg)123 ± 23123 ± 240.69124 ± 30128 ± 310.22−3.5 (−8.7, 1.7)0.13
BMI (kg/m2)39.0 ± 7.638.9 ± 8.10.7339.4 ± 7.940.6 ± 8.40.22−1.0 (−2.6, 0.6)0.14
Testicular size (mL)18 ± 414 ± 40.00617 ± 516 ± 50.31−3 (−6, 0)0.04
Laboratory measurements
 Total testosterone (ng/dL)259 ± 85561 ± 183<0.001239 ± 81280 ± 1320.08246 (106, 385)<0.001
 Free testosterone (ng/dL)4.5 ± 1.313.8 ± 4.1<0.0014.2 ± 1.25.1 ± 1.70.077.3 (4.0, 10.6)<0.001
 cFT (ng/dL)5.5 ± 1.117.6 ± 5.1<0.0015.2 ± 1.05.7 ± 1.80.368.9 (4.6, 13.2)<0.001
 Total estradiol (pg/mL)30.1 ± 17.262.6 ± 42.70.0126.1 ± 8.326.4 ± 10.60.9230 (9, 51)0.008
 Free estradiol (pg/mL)0.66 ± 0.431.55 ± 1.100.020.57 ± 0.200.59 ± 0.220.960.74 (0.16, 1.31)0.014
 SHBG (nmol/L)27 ± 1424 ± 100.0626 ± 1327 ± 130.82−3 (−8, 1)0.13
 HbA1c, % (mmol/mol)6.8 ± 0.9 (51 ± 9.8)7.2 ± 0.9 (55 ± 9.8)0.277.0 ± 1.4 (53 ± 15.3)7.1 ± 1.5 (54 ± 16.4)0.720.15 (−0.59, 0.90)0.40
 Insulin (µU/mL)13.6 ± 3.09.9 ± 1.80.0411.8 ± 2.213.9 ± 4.00.54−6.1 (−7.4, 0.87)0.07
 Glucose (mg/dL)126 ± 8115 ± 70.03119 ± 10132 ± 130.31−26.4 (−48.1, −4.6)0.02
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL)157 ± 38145 ± 270.26156 ± 37156 ± 310.92−7 (−32, 17)0.39
 HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)34 ± 733 ± 80.3639 ± 1040 ± 120.79−2 (−8, 4)0.46
 LDL cholesterol (mg/dL)87 ± 3777 ± 230.2083 ± 2382 ± 280.89−8 (−35, 19)0.23
 Triglycerides (mg/dL)222 ± 197192 ± 1420.73167 ± 96172 ± 1000.73−10 (−112, 92)0.36
Sexual questionnaire scores
 Sexual desire (0–7)2.7 ± 1.83.9 ± 1.20.032.2 ± 1.52.5 ± 2.20.570.7 (−0.8, 2.2)0.25
 Sexual enjoyment (0–7)1.6 ± 1.33.0 ± 1.60.031.4 ± 1.31.0 ± 1.10.590.9 (0.4, 2.1)0.03
 Satisfaction with erection (0–7)2.2 ± 2.03.9 ± 1.80.033.4 ± 2.23.5 ± 2.10.941.5 (−0.3, 3.4)0.11
 Percentage of full erection (0–100%)35 ± 3557 ± 310.0744 ± 2551 ± 260.1214 (−14, 41)0.27
 Positive mood (0–7)4.4 ± 1.34.9 ± 0.80.254.3 ± 0.94.4 ± 1.10.89−0.02 (−1.46, 1.42)0.19
 Negative mood (0–7)1.2 ± 0.90.9 ± 1.10.351.7 ± 1.71.8 ± 1.41.0−0.4 (−2.1, 1.3)0.73
Body composition
 Waist circumference (cm)128 ± 20126 ± 180.73124 ± 30124 ± 190.22−2 (−7, 3)0.29
 Waist-to-hip ratio1.06 ± 0.081.04 ± 0.070.341.06 ± 0.041.01 ± 0.050.020.03 (−0.02, 0.08)0.20
 Trunk subcutaneous fat mass (kg)27.2 ± 8.125.3 ± 7.30.0326.7 ± 6.927.2 ± 7.90.36−2.5 (−4.8, −0.2)0.03
 Arm fat mass (kg)4.5 ± 2.14.4 ± 1.90.484.4 ± 2.05.1 ± 1.90.04−0.9 (−1.7, −0.11)0.03
 Leg fat mass(kg)11.8 ± 4.511.2 ± 4.50.2812.3 ± 6.711.9 ± 5.20.55−0.2 (−1.8, 1.4)0.81
 Total body subcutaneous fat mass (kg)44.5 ± 13.742.1 ± 12.50.0244.5 ± 15.045.4 ± 14.40.11−3.3 (−5.8, −0.8)0.01
 Visceral fat (L)7.81 ± 3.037.25 ± 2.860.407.33 ± 2.737.44 ± 3.180.61−1.09 (−3.00, 0.82)0.25
 Hepatic fat %6.17 ± 6.454.41 ± 3.800.223.93 ± 6.063.39 ± 4.060.55−1.49 (−4.86, 1.89)0.37
 Arm lean mass (kg)8.1 ± 1.38.8 ± 1.30.017.9 ± 1.58.4 ± 1.80.080.2 (−0.5, 0.9)0.61
 Leg lean mass (kg)21.6 ± 3.222.5 ± 3.20.0721.2 ± 4.320.9 ± 3.10.741.2 (−0.6, 3.1)0.18
 Total body lean mass (kg)70.6 ± 9.273.2 ± 10.70.00169.1 ± 13.468.3 ± 13.00.413.4 (1.2, 5.6)0.003
 Hip bone density (g/cm2)1.15 ± 0.191.14 ± 0.190.611.15 ± 0.171.14 ± 0.150.200.01 (−0.01, 0.04)0.29
 Spine bone density (g/cm2)1.27 ± 0.171.28 ± 0.150.571.25 ± 0.191.31 ± 0.210.04−0.04 (−0.11, 0.02)0.09
 Total body bone density (g/cm2)1.36 ± 0.131.36 ± 0.130.851.35 ± 0.121.33 ± 0.130.450.01 (−0.01, 0.04)0.29
Insulin sensitivity
 GIR (mg/kg fat-free mass/min)6.66 ± 4.368.73 ± 4.270.0045.12 ± 2.795.06 ± 3.620.762.16 (0.39, 3.92)0.03
 HOMA-IR4.1 ± 0.92.7 ± 0.50.033.5 ± 0.63.8 ± 0.90.85−1.72 (−3.88, −0.65)0.03
Inflammatory mediators
 FFAs (mmol/L)0.62 ± 0.200.40 ± 0.13<0.0010.58 ± 0.200.56 ± 0.200.52−0.21 (−0.37, −0.5)0.04
 CRP (mg/L)4.3 ± 4.53.5 ± 3.80.0034.7 ± 4.14.6 ± 3.90.71−0.7 (−1.7, −0.2)0.02
 IL-1β (pg/mL)1.69 ± 0.231.22 ± 0.170.0010.99 ± 0.310.93 ± 0.270.65−0.40 (−0.82, −0.09)0.03
 TNF-α (pg/mL)2.53 ± 0.412.13 ± 0.320.0012.08 ± 0.222.03 ± 0.20.85−0.403 (−0.022, −0.783)0.04
 Leptin (ng/mL)19.0 ± 2.715.4 ± 2.40.00722.9 ± 3.124.1 ± 2.60.41−4.8 (−7.9, −2.7)0.01
 Adiponectin (μg/mL)6.8 ± 0.16.4 ± 0.10.456.3 ± 0.26.1 ± 0.20.68−0.2 (−0.8, 0.4)0.61
  • Data are mean ± SD unless otherwise indicated.