Table 1

Baseline characteristics of REGARDS participants with or without diabetes, by depressive symptom/stress category

Diabetes (n = 4,090)No diabetes (n = 17,913)P*
No depressive symptoms, no/low stressDepressive symptoms or moderate/severe stressDepressive symptoms and moderate/severe stressNo depressive symptoms, no/low stressDepressive symptoms or moderate/severe stressDepressive symptoms and moderate/severe stress
N2,5831,09141612,6204,1751,118
Age (years), mean (SD)65.2 (8.5)64.8 (9.3)62.1 (8.6)64.1 (9.2)63.1 (9.7)61.0 (9.8)<0.001
Female, n (%)1,335 (51.7)703 (64.4)324 (77.9)6,828 (54.1)2,798 (67.0)827 (74.0)<0.001
Black, n (%)1,510 (58.5)712 (65.3)279 (67.1)4,341 (34.4)1,760 (42.2)557 (49.8)<0.001
Stroke Belt residence, n (%)1,477 (57.2)646 (59.2)280 (67.3)6,773 (53.7)2,376 (56.9)675 (60.4)<0.001
High school or more education, n (%)2,202 (85.3)837 (76.9)295 (71.2)11,682 (92.6)3,696 (88.6)881 (78.8)<0.001
Annual household income ≥$35,000, n (%)1,088 (47.7)313 (33.0)80 (22.1)6,937 (62.2)1,847 (50.8)292 (29.9)<0.001
Health insurance, n (%)2,412 (93.5)994 (91.1)356 (85.8)11,895 (94.4)3,804 (91.2)933 (83.5)0.04
Current smoker, n (%)328 (12.7)141 (13.0)91 (22.0)1,551 (12.3)654 (15.7)315 (28.3)0.54
BMI <25 kg/m2, n (%) 284 (11.1)111 (10.3)30 (7.3)3,583 (28.5)1,191 (28.6)285 (25.6)<0.001
BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2, n (%)788 (30.9)301 (28.0)109 (26.6)5,026 (39.9)1,448 (34.8)364 (32.7)
BMI 30–40 kg/m2, n (%)1,186 (46.5)497 (46.2)195 (47.6)3,465 (27.5)1,285 (30.9)382 (34.3)
BMI >40 kg/m2, n (%)292 (11.5)167 (15.5)76 (18.5)510 (4.1)236 (5.7)84 (7.5)
hs-CRP <1 mg/dL, n (%) 507 (21.1)200 (19.6)56 (14.6)3,678 (29.8)1,061 (26.1)222 (20.3)<0.001
hs-CRP 1–3 mg/dL, n (%)765 (31.9)271 (26.6)86 (22.3)4,244 (34.4)1,374 (33.8)351 (32.1)
hs-CRP ≥3 mg/dL, n (%)1,130 (47.0)548 (53.8)243 (63.1)4,420 (35.8)1,634 (40.2)521 (47.6)
Left ventricular hypertrophy, n (%)321 (12.4)154 (14.1)56 (13.5)975 (7.7)349 (8.4)107 (9.6)<0.001
Statin use, n (%)1,038 (40.2)461 (42.3)155 (37.3)2,755 (21.8)843 (20.2)232 (20.8)<0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg), mean (SD)131.1 (16.4)131.9 (17.2)131.2 (18.6)126.0 (15.9)125.4 (16.5)126.2 (17.2)<0.001
Total cholesterol (mg/dL), mean (SD)182.7 (39.7)185.3 (42.7)190.3 (44.2)197.5 (37.7)199.0 (38.4)201.3 (40.4)<0.001
  • *P value for comparison of subjects with diabetes vs. subjects with no diabetes.