Table 2

Event numbers, age-adjusted incidence rates per 1,000 person-years, and crude and adjusted HRs for stroke, acute CHD, and CV disease death for individuals with stress or depressive symptoms and with stress and depressive symptoms compared with those with neither, for individuals with and without diabetes

DiabetesNo diabetes
No depressive symptoms, no/low stress (n = 2,583)Depressive symptoms or moderate/severe stress(n = 1,091)Depressive symptoms and moderate/severe stress (n = 416)No depressive symptoms, no/low stress (n = 12,620)Depressive symptoms or moderate/severe stress (n = 4,175)Depressive symptoms and moderate/severe stress (n = 1,118)
Stroke
 Events (N)6842142578124
 Age-adjusted incidence rt./1,000 person-years3.94.45.52.73.13.9
 Crude HR (95% CI)Ref.1.55 (1.05, 2.29)1.40 (0.79, 2.49)Ref.1.02 (0.80, 1.31)1.15 (0.76, 1.74)
 Model 1 HR (95% CI)Ref.1.61 (1.09, 2.39)1.75 (0.97, 3.17)Ref.1.09 (0.85, 1.40)1.40 (0.92, 2.14)
 Model 2 HR (95% CI)Ref.1.56 (1.05, 2.31)1.60 (0.88, 2.92)Ref.1.03 (0.80, 1.32)1.25 (0.82, 1.90)
 Full model HR (95% CI)Ref.1.57 (1.05, 2.33)1.57 (0.86, 2.87)Ref.1.01 (0.79, 1.30)1.14 (0.75, 1.75)
Acute CHD
 Events (N)11762243299828
 Age-adjusted incidence rt./1,000 person-years7.48.09.83.94.25.1
 Crude HR (95% CI)Ref.1.29 (0.96, 1.73)1.39 (0.92, 2.10)Ref.1.06 (0.84, 1.34)1.27 (0.79, 2.02)
 Model 1 HR (95% CI)Ref.1.35 (1.00, 1.82)1.70 (1.12, 2.58)Ref.1.18 (0.95, 1.45)1.56 (1.06, 2.30)
 Model 2 HR (95% CI)Ref.1.30 (0.96, 1.75)1.57 (1.02, 2.40)Ref.1.13 (0.91, 1.39)1.37 (0.94, 2.01)
 Full model HR (95% CI)Ref.1.29 (0.96, 1.74)1.48 (0.96, 2.27)Ref.1.12 (0.90, 1.38)1.27 (0.86, 1.88)
CV death
 Events (N)8151232378823
 Age-adjusted incidence rt./1,000 person-years3.85.06.72.12.73.6
 Crude HR (95% CI)Ref.1.58 (1.12, 2.24)1.93 (1.22, 3.06)Ref.1.24 (0.96, 1.62)1.28 (0.83, 1.97)
 Model 1 HR (95% CI)Ref.1.60 (1.13, 2.26)2.35 (1.47, 3.76)Ref.1.30 (1.00, 1.70)1.40 (0.90, 2.17)
 Model 2 HR (95% CI)Ref.1.52 (1.07, 2.16)2.13 (1.33, 3.43)Ref.1.20 (0.92, 1.56)1.13 (0.73, 1.74)
 Full model HR (95% CI)Ref.1.53 (1.08, 2.17)2.15 (1.33, 3.47)Ref.1.12 (0.90, 1.38)1.27 (0.86, 1.88)
  • Crude model adjusted for depressive symptom and stress category. Model 1 adjusted for crude model plus demographic factors (race, sex, age, region). Model 2 adjusted for crude model plus demographic factors plus social and economic factors (income, education, health insurance). Full model adjusted for crude model plus demographic factors, social and economic factors, and risk factors (BMI, total cholesterol, hs-CRP, atrial fibrillation, left ventricular hypertrophy, systolic blood pressure, statin use, current cigarette smoking). Boldface type indicates statistical significance. Ref., reference; rt., rate.