Table 2

Association between LCD scores and risk of T2DM among women with a history of GDM

Quintiles of LCD scoresP for trend
Quintile 1Quintile 2Quintile 3Quintile 4Quintile 5
Overall LCD score
 Median score510151925
 Cases of T2DM (n)12499144141214
 Person-years14,82111,69715,56311,97314,843
 Age-adjusted model1.00 (reference)1.01 (0.76–1.35)1.11 (0.85–1.44)1.44 (1.10–1.87)1.89 (1.48–2.42)<0.001
 Multivariable modela1.00 (reference)1.07 (0.80–1.44)1.24 (0.95–1.63)1.66 (1.26–2.19)2.13 (1.65–2.76)<0.001
 Multivariable model + BMIb1.00 (reference)0.95 (0.70–1.30)1.02 (0.77–1.36)1.28 (0.96–1.71)1.36 (1.04–1.78)0.003
Animal LCD score
 Median score410152026
 Cases of T2DM (n)114107146142213
 Person-years14,42613,02214,35712,72714,367
 Age-adjusted model1.00 (reference)0.97 (0.73–1.29)1.30 (1.00–1.70)1.44 (1.10–1.89)1.95 (1.52–2.50)<0.001
 Multivariable modela1.00 (reference)1.04 (0.77–1.39)1.40 (1.07–1.84)1.63 (1.23–2.15)2.18 (1.68–2.83)<0.001
 Multivariable model + BMIb1.00 (reference)0.97 (0.71–1.32)1.12 (0.84–1.50)1.18 (0.88–1.58)1.40 (1.06–1.84)0.004
Vegetable LCD score
 Median score812151822
 Cases of T2DM (n)143147144128160
 Person-years15,21212,30613,18512,80015,394
 Age-adjusted model1.00 (reference)1.32 (1.03–1.70)1.18 (0.92–1.53)1.20 (0.92–1.56)1.13 (0.88–1.45)0.58
 Multivariable modela1.00 (reference)1.45 (1.12–1.88)1.33 (1.02–1.72)1.29 (0.99–1.69)1.29 (1.00–1.67)0.14
 Multivariable model + BMIb1.00 (reference)1.38 (1.05–1.81)1.24 (0.94–1.63)1.14 (0.86–1.51)1.19 (0.91–1.55)0.50
  • Data are HR (95% CI) unless noted otherwise.

  • aCovariates in the multivariable model included age (months), parity (1, 2, 3, ≥4), age at first birth (12–24, 25–29, ≥30 years), race/ethnicity (Caucasian, African American, Hispanic, Asian, other), family history of diabetes (yes or no), oral contraceptive use (current, former, never), menopausal status (premenopausal or postmenopausal), cigarette smoking (never, former, current), alcohol intake (0, 0.1–4.9, 5.0–14.9, ≥15.0 g/day), physical activity (quintiles), total energy intake (quintiles), and glycemic index. All the time-varying covariates were updated during the follow-up and were modeled as time-varying variables in the models.

  • bBMI, as a time-varying variable, was modeled as <23.0, 23.0–24.9, 25.0–26.9, 27.0–29.9, 30.0–34.9, 35.0–39.9, or ≥40.0 kg/m2.