Table 1

Baseline maternal characteristics stratified by type of diabetes and timing of GDM diagnosis

Maternal demographics (N = 4,873)Type 2 diabetes (n = 65)GDM P value
<12 weeks (n = 68)12–23 weeks (n = 1,247)≥24 weeks (n = 3,493)
Ethnicity (%)0.0001
 Anglo-Celtic14351624
 Chinese/Southeast Asian29324738
 Indian14131110
 Mediterranean541011
 Middle Eastern5455
 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander21644
 Other12488
Age (years)34.5 ± 5.634.7 ± 4.5*35.1 ± 4.9*32.9 ± 5.0<0.0001
Prepregnancy BMI (kg/m2)30.2 ± 6.2*28.0 ± 6.9*25.3 ± 6.2*24.2 ± 5.3<0.0001
Final BMI (kg/m2)35.6 ± 6.3* (n = 32)32.4 ± 7.5* (n = 40)29.6 ± 6.0 (n = 1,069)29.2 ± 5.3 (n= 2,955)<0.0001
GWG (kg)12.8¶ (9.1–19.2)6.4* (3.5–13.0)10.5*¶ (7.4–14.0)12.5¶ (9.0–16.0)<0.0001
Family history DM (%)84.461.858.047.5<0.0001
Parity (%)<0.0001
 Primiparous45253442
 Multiparous55*75*66*58
  • Data are presented as mean ± SD or median (interquartile range), unless otherwise indicated.

  • *Different from GDM diagnosed after 24 weeks of gestation (comparator group). ¶Different from GDM diagnosed before 12 weeks of gestation.