Table 3

Maternal outcomes for type 2 diabetes and GDM stratified by timing of diagnosis

Maternal outcomesT2DM (n = 65)GDM P value
<12 weeks (n = 68)12–23 weeks (n = 1,247)≥24 weeks (n = 3,493)
Gestation at delivery (weeks)37.4 ± 1.9*37.5 ± 3.2*38.3 ± 2.4*38.8 ± 1.7<0.0001
Preterm delivery (%)25.9*16.7*11.2*6.4<0.0001
Cesarean section (%)57.9*30.736.2*28.1<0.0001
Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (%)34.6*26.3*13.8*11.2<0.0002
Postpartum OGTT (%)#(N = 28)(N = 702)(N = 1,877)<0.0001
 Normal79*71*85
 IGT112414
 T2DM1151
  • Data are presented as mean ± SD, unless otherwise indicated. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, either pre-eclampsia or systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg in a previously normotensive pregnant woman whose pregnancy is at ≥20 weeks of gestation and has no proteinuria or new signs of end-organ dysfunction; preterm delivery, <37 weeks of gestation. IGT, impaired glucose tolerance; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  • *Different from GDM diagnosed after 24 weeks of gestation (comparator group). #Performed 3 months postpartum, IGT was defined as either a fasting BGL of 6.1–6.9 mmol/L and/or a 2-h BGL of 7.8–11.0 mmol/L, and T2DM was defined as a fasting BGL of ≥7.0 mmol/L and/or a 2-h BGL of ≥11.1 mmol/L.