Table 1

Demographics, laboratory measures, sexual questionnaire scores, body composition, insulin sensitivity, and inflammatory mediators in men with and without HH

HypogonadalEugonadalP
Number of subjects4450
Age (years)54.6 ± 7.951.5 ± 8.90.075
Duration of diabetes (years)9.4 ± 8.610.9 ± 9.80.50
BMI (kg/m2)39.8 ± 7.834.0 ± 6.4<0.001
Testicular size (mL)17.4 ± 4.719.1 ± 5.30.19
Laboratory measurements
 Total testosterone (ng/dL)252 ± 82485 ± 183<0.001
 Free testosterone (ng/dL)4.4 ± 1.27.6 ± 2.2<0.001
 cFT (ng/dL)5.4 ± 1.19.5 ± 1.8<0.001
 SHBG (nmol/L)26.3 ± 12.836.0 ± 23.50.01
 LH (IU/L)3.9 [2.4, 5.8]5.0 [3.6, 6.1]0.05
 FSH (IU/L)5.3 [3.5, 9.4]6.9 (4.2, 9.3]0.34
 PSA (ng/mL)0.6 [0.4, 0.8]0.6 [0.4, 1.0]0.64
 HbA1c, % (mmol/mol)7.0 ± 1.1 (53 ± 12)7.1 ± 1.1 (54 ± 12)0.66
 Total estradiol (pg/mL)29.6 ± 13.225.0 ± 9.90.11
 Free estradiol (pg/mL)0.65 ± 0.320.60 ± 0.230.48
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL)154 ± 42173 ± 500.07
 HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)39 ± 944 ± 140.06
 LDL cholesterol (mg/dL)89 ± 29100 ± 360.13
 Triglycerides (mg/dL)128 [103, 211]113 [80, 177]0.44
 Hemoglobin (g/dL)13.8 ± 1.314.6 ± 1.20.002
 Hematocrit (%)41.2 ± 3.843.8 ± 3.20.001
Medications (%)
 Metformin89680.05
 Sulfonylureas41340.29
 Insulin50460.82
 Glucagon-like peptide 1 agonists16160.92
 Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors14160.64
 Thiazolidinediones14120.89
 Diet only060.28
Ethnicity (%)
 Caucasian68681.0
 African American23241.0
 Hispanic781.0
Sexual questionnaire scores
 Sexual desire (0–7)2.5 ± 1.63.6 ± 1.50.009
 Sexual enjoyment (0–7)1.7 ± 1.42.6 ± 1.90.04
 Satisfaction with erection (0–7)2.6 ± 2.14.0 ± 1.90.02
 Percentage of full erection (0–100%)37 ± 3060 ± 290.007
 Positive mood (0–7)4.5 ± 1.25.0 ± 1.30.15
 Negative mood (0–7)1.4 ± 1.11.4 ± 1.40.93
Body composition
 Waist circumference (cm)125 ± 21116 ± 180.06
 Hip circumference (cm)119 ± 20113 ± 120.17
 Waist-to-hip ratio1.06 ± 0.071.01 ± 0.090.03
 Trunk fat mass by DEXA (kg)28 ± 722 ± 8<0.001
 Leg fat mass (kg)12.3 ± 5.18.5 ± 3.7<0.001
 Arm fat mass (kg)4.6 ± 1.93.2 ± 1.5<0.001
 Total body subcutaneous fat mass (kg)46 ± 1434 ± 12<0.001
 Visceral fat (L)8.22 ± 3.245.96 ± 2.530.001
 Hepatic fat (%)5.77 ± 6.937.10 ± 7.810.43
 Leg lean mass (kg)21.8 ± 3.819.8 ± 3.00.01
 Arm lean mass (kg)8.0 ± 1.58.0 ± 1.40.99
 Total body lean mass (kg)71 ± 1164 ± 90.002
Insulin sensitivity
 GIR (mg/kg fat-free mass/min)6.53 ± 4.0110.29 ± 5.550.002
 GIR adjusted for total subcutaneous, visceral, and hepatic fat7.67 ± 4.099.40 ± 5.720.15
 HOMA-IR3.92 ± 0.663.44 ± 0.590.53
Inflammatory mediators
 FFAs (mmol/L)0.60 ± 0.190.57 ± 0.190.54
 CRP (mg/L)4.5 ± 3.92.9 ± 3.10.10
 Leptin (ng/mL)20.0 ± 2.118.1 ± 3.60.13
 Adiponectin (μg/mL)6.6 ± 0.95.6 ± 0.60.81
 IL-1β (pg/mL)1.41 ± 0.201.13 ± 0.190.14
 TNF-α (pg/mL)2.51 ± 0.282.28 ± 0.380.18
  • Data are means ± SD, except for LH, FSH, PSA, and triglycerides, which were not normally distributed and are reported as median [25th, 75th percentile]. All patients had testosterone concentrations measured twice at baseline. The concentrations for total, free, and calculated free testosterone are an average of the two measurements.