Table 9.2

Management of CKD in diabetes

GFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)Recommended management
All patientsYearly measurement of Cr, UACR, potassium
45–60Referral to a nephrologist if possibility for nondiabetic kidney disease exists (duration of type 1 diabetes <10 years, persistent albuminuria, abnormal findings on renal ultrasound, resistant hypertension, rapid fall in eGFR, or active urinary sediment on urine microscopic examination)
Consider the need for dose adjustment of medications
Monitor eGFR every 6 months
Monitor electrolytes, bicarbonate, hemoglobin, calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone at least yearly
Assure vitamin D sufficiency
Consider bone density testing
Referral for dietary counseling
30–44Monitor eGFR every 3 months
Monitor electrolytes, bicarbonate, calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, hemoglobin, albumin, and weight every 3–6 months
Consider the need for dose adjustment of medications
<30Referral to a nephrologist