Table 10.1

Framework for considering treatment goals for glycemia, blood pressure, and dyslipidemia in older adults with diabetes

Patient characteristics/health statusRationaleReasonable A1C goalFasting or preprandial glucoseBedtime glucoseBlood pressureLipids
Healthy (few coexisting chronic illnesses, intact cognitive and functional status)Longer remaining life expectancy<7.5%
(58 mmol/mol)
90–130 mg/dL
(5.0–7.2 mmol/L)
90–150 mg/dL
(5.0–8.3 mmol/L)
<140/90 mmHgStatin unless contraindicated or not tolerated
Complex/intermediate (multiple coexisting chronic illnesses* or 2+ instrumental ADL impairments or mild-to-moderate cognitive impairment)Intermediate remaining life expectancy, high treatment burden, hypoglycemia vulnerability, fall risk<8.0%
(64 mmol/mol)
90–150 mg/dL
(5.0–8.3 mmol/L)
100–180 mg/dL
(5.6–10.0 mmol/L)
<140/90 mmHgStatin unless contraindicated or not tolerated
Very complex/poor health (LTC or end-stage chronic illnesses** or moderate-to-severe cognitive impairment or 2+ ADL dependencies)Limited remaining life expectancy makes benefit uncertain<8.5%
(69 mmol/mol)
100–180 mg/dL
(5.6–10.0 mmol/L)
110–200 mg/dL
(6.1–11.1 mmol/L)
<150/90 mmHgConsider likelihood of benefit with statin (secondary prevention more so than primary)
  • This represents a consensus framework for considering treatment goals for glycemia, blood pressure, and dyslipidemia in older adults with diabetes. The patient characteristic categories are general concepts. Not every patient will clearly fall into a particular category. Consideration of patient and caregiver preferences is an important aspect of treatment individualization. Additionally, a patient’s health status and preferences may change over time. ADL, activities of daily living.

  • A lower A1C goal may be set for an individual if achievable without recurrent or severe hypoglycemia or undue treatment burden.

  • * Coexisting chronic illnesses are conditions serious enough to require medications or lifestyle management and may include arthritis, cancer, congestive heart failure, depression, emphysema, falls, hypertension, incontinence, stage 3 or worse chronic kidney disease, myocardial infarction, and stroke. By “multiple,” we mean at least three, but many patients may have five or more (27).

  • ** The presence of a single end-stage chronic illness, such as stage 3–4 congestive heart failure or oxygen-dependent lung disease, chronic kidney disease requiring dialysis, or uncontrolled metastatic cancer, may cause significant symptoms or impairment of functional status and significantly reduce life expectancy.

  • A1C of 8.5% (69 mmol/mol) equates to an estimated average glucose of ∼200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L). Looser A1C targets above 8.5% (69 mmol/mol) are not recommended as they may expose patients to more frequent higher glucose values and the acute risks from glycosuria, dehydration, hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome, and poor wound healing.