Table 2

Number of autoantibodies the child developed and reverted during follow-up from birth to ≤10 years

Reversion patternDeveloped type 1 diabetes
Maximum number of persistent Abs developed during follow-upTotal NAb reversion pattern during follow-upN (% of total)Fluctuated* after reversion N (% of total)Person-time follow-up for type 1 diabetes (years)NIncidence (95% CI) per 100 person-years
None7,90740,001.6250.06 (0.04–0.09)
Single (1 Ab)225Remained persistent126 (56.0)874.7161.83 (1.05–2.97)
IAA34 (15.1)182.5105.48 (2.63–10.1)
GADA86 (38.2)645.840.62 (0.17–1.59)
Reverted99 (44.0)14 (14.1)701.310.14 (0.00–0.79)
Reverted IAA56 (24.9)7 (12.5)405.910.25 (0.01–1.37)
Reverted GADA42 (18.7)7 (16.7)289.300
Multiple (2 Abs)161Remained persistent 2 Abs113 (70.2)663.0395.88 (4.18–8.04)
IAA & GADA53 (32.9)303.2154.95 (2.77–8.16)
IAA & IA-2A32 (19.9)147.62013.55 (8.28–20.93)
GADA & IA-2A28 (17.4)212.141.89 (0.51–4.83)
Reverted 1 Ab44 (27.3)21 (47.7)322.692.79 (1.28–5.30)
Reverted IAA, persistent GADA29 (18.0)14 (48.3)226.820.88 (0.11–3.19)
Reverted IAA, persistent IA-2A10 (6.2)5 (50.0)63.646.29 (1.71–16.10)
Reverted GADA, persistent IAA3 (1.9)1 (33.3)14.6213.70 (1.66–49.48)
Reverted GADA, persistent IA-2A1 (1.2)0 (0)7.500
Reverted 2 Abs4 (2.5)3 (75.0)22.928.73 (1.06–31.55)
Reverted GADA & IAA3 (1.9)2 (66.7)16.1212.42 (1.50–44.87)
Multiple (3 Abs)210Remained persistent 3 Abs151 (71.9)839.2698.22 (6.4–10.41)
Reverted 1 Ab46 (21.9)19 (41.3)315.9216.65 (4.12–10.16)
Reverted IAA30 (14.3)15 (50.0)218.9104.57 (2.19–8.40)
Reverted GADA15 (7.1)3 (20.0)91.11010.98 (5.26–10.19)
Reverted 2 Abs12 (5.7)9 (75.5)78.267.67 (2.82–16.70)
Reverted GADA & IAA8 (<0.1)5 (62.5)47612.77 (4.68–27.79)
Reverted 3 Abs1 (0.5)1 (100)5.84117.12 (0.43–95.4)
  • Expression patterns involving the reversion of IA-2A are not shown specifically but are included in the overall reversion group.

  • Ab, autoantibody.

  • *If reverted for greater than 1 Ab, fluctuate refers to at least 1 Ab repeat seroconverts.