Table 3

Parameter estimates (independent dollar contribution to change in costs) and P values from fully adjusted multivariable models of change in annual costs

Inpatient costsOutpatient costsPharmacy costsTotal costs
Parameter estimateP valueParameter estimateP valueParameter estimateP valueParameter estimateP value
A1C <7%, weight change <5% (ref)
A1C ≥7%, weight change <5%1620.550−640.661220.823200.958
A1C <7%, gained >5%2080.6503650.141−1520.3588070.216
A1C ≥7%, gained >5%7860.0445720.007544<0.0011,894<0.001
Baseline costs−1<0.001−1<0.0010<0.001−1<0.001
Age130.30470.301−130.006−150.416
Duration of diabetes230.39054<0.001−230.020280.463
Male−30.990–425<0.001770.366−4360.193
African American−1,3770.009−540.851−1850.331−1,5710.037
Hispanic−8820.053−1470.550−1350.408−1,3630.035
Smoker1,1760.0021980.3381990.1491,942<0.001
Baseline LDL cholesterol40.363−20.455−10.666−10.926
Baseline SBP230.010−60.21540.258260.039
Baseline weight10.62510.27510.14240.268
Ischemic heart disease4790.1155210.002−1890.0848880.040
Heart failure2,195<0.001840<0.0012970.0583,705<0.001
Depression6990.004732<0.0011850.0362,489<0.001
Retinopathy4970.1371480.410−2040.0881750.712
Neuropathy3230.2081,135<0.0012330.0122,392<0.001
Hypoglycemia−3,0350.3811,9180.3048440.4978260.867
CKD470.8743400.033−70.9455670.178
ACE/ARB use−1910.510560.718−590.568−2090.611
β-Blocker use7200.0053550.010−30.9741,282<0.001
Insulin use1,072<0.0013100.0712710.0192,670<0.001
Statin use−3510.224−587<0.001−2720.009−9660.018
Metformin use−5030.04780.951−910.316−5660.115
Sulfonylurea use4160.100−210.8792330.0117450.038
Other oral antidiabetic use4150.491540.869−4300.0476550.445
Other injectable antidiabetic use−2,2290.6102,5430.2812,0840.1854,4570.473
  • Bold font indicates statistical significance, P < 0.05.