Table 2

Risk of macroalbuminuria during long-term follow-up in DCCT and EDIC

Model 1 HR (95% CI)P valueModel 2 HR (95% CI)P valueModel 3 HR (95% CI)P value
SBP category
 ≥140 mmHg2.95 (1.84–4.74)<0.0013.12 (1.94–5.04)<0.0012.77 (1.68–4.57)<0.001
 130 to <140 mmHgReferenceReferenceReference
 120 to <130 mmHg0.65 (0.42–1.02)0.060.63 (0.40–0.99)0.0470.85 (0.53–1.36)0.49
 <120 mmHg0.36 (0.23–0.56)<0.0010.37 (0.24–0.59)<0.0010.59 (0.37–0.95)0.03
DBP category
 ≥90 mmHg2.16 (1.32–3.53)0.0022.00 (1.22–3.27)0.0061.79 (1.08–2.98)0.03
 80 to <90 mmHgReferenceReferenceReference
 70 to <80 mmHg0.49 (0.34–0.70)<0.0010.51 (0.35–0.73)<0.0010.71 (0.48–1.04)0.08
 <70 mmHg0.39 (0.25–0.61)<0.0010.45 (0.28–0.71)0.0010.73 (0.44–1.18)0.20
  • Model 1, stratified on primary vs. secondary prevention cohort and adjusted for DCCT randomization arm (intensive glycemic control strategy), with reference group being SBP 130 to <140 mmHg or DBP 80 to <90 mmHg; model 2, adjusted additionally for baseline factors, including age, sex, race, education, family history of hypertension, albuminuria, smoking status (ever smoked, yes/no), and baseline eGFR (by CKD-EPI equation); model 3, additionally adjusted for time-dependent covariates including hemoglobin A1c, BMI, use of any antihypertensive medication, smoking status, use of RAAS blockade (ACE inhibitor or ARB), albuminuria, and eGFR (all with 1-year lag). HR, hazard ratio.