Table 3

Risk of stage III CKD during long-term follow-up in DCCT and EDIC studies

Model 1 HR (95% CI)P valueModel 2 HR (95% CI)P valueModel 3 HR (95% CI)P value
SBP category
 ≥140 mmHg3.49 (1.95–6.27)<0.0013.45 (1.91–6.21)<0.0011.89 (1.00–3.57)0.05
 130 to <140 mmHgReferenceReferenceReference
 120 to <130 mmHg0.75 (0.40–1.39)0.360.75 (0.40–1.41)0.381.46 (0.75–2.83)0.27
 <120 mmHg0.15 (0.07–0.34)<0.0010.15 (0.07–0.34)<0.0010.32 (0.14–0.75)0.009
DBP category
 ≥90 mmHg4.37 (2.40–7.95)<0.0014.33 (2.37–7.93)<0.0012.07 (1.03–4.17)0.04
 80 to <90 mmHgReferenceReferenceReference
 70 to <80 mmHg0.72 (0.42–1.23)0.230.69 (0.40–1.19)0.181.11 (0.61–2.01)0.73
 <70 mmHg0.33 (0.16–0.70)0.0040.30 (0.14–0.63)0.0020.47 (0.21–1.05)0.07
  • Model 1, stratified on primary vs. secondary prevention cohort and adjusted for DCCT randomization arm (intensive glycemic control strategy), with reference group being SBP 130 to <140 mmHg or DBP 80 to <90 mmHg; model 2, adjusted additionally for baseline factors including age, sex, race, education, family history of hypertension, albuminuria, smoking status (ever smoked, yes/no), and baseline eGFR (by CKD-EPI equation); model 3, additionally adjusted for time-updated covariates including hemoglobin A1c, BMI, use of any antihypertensive medication, smoking status, use of RAAS blockade (ACE inhibitor or ARB), albuminuria, and eGFR (all with 1-year lag). HR, hazard ratio.