Table 5

Symptoms and signs associated with diabetic autonomic neuropathy

CANGastrointestinalUrogenitalSudomotor
Resting tachycardiaGastroparesis (Gastropathy)Bladder dysfunctionDry skin
Abnormal blood pressure regulation
  • Nondipping

  • Reverse dipping

  • Nausea

  • Bloating

  • Loss of appetite

  • Early satiety

  • Postprandial vomiting

  • Brittle diabetes

  • Frequency

  • Urgency

  • Nocturia

  • Hesitancy

  • Weak stream

  • Dribbling

  • Urinary incontinence

  • Urinary retention

  • Anhidrosis

  • Gustatory sweating

Orthostatic hypotension (all with standing)Esophageal dysfunctionMale sexual dysfunction
  • Light-headedness

  • Weakness

  • Faintness

  • Visual impairment

  • Syncope

  • Heartburn

  • Dysphagia for solids

  • Erectile dysfunction

  • Decreased libido

  • Abnormal ejaculation

Orthostatic tachycardia or bradycardia and chronotropic incompetence (all with standing)Diabetic diarrheaFemale sexual dysfunction
  • Light-headedness

  • Weakness

  • Faintness

  • Dizziness

  • Visual impairment

  • Syncope

  • Profuse and watery diarrhea

  • Fecal incontinence

  • May alternate with constipation

  • Decreased sexual desire

  • Increased pain during intercourse

  • Decreased sexual arousal

  • Inadequate lubrication

Exercise intoleranceConstipation
  • May alternate with explosive diarrhea