Table 2.1

Staging of type 1 diabetes (4,5)

Stage 1Stage 2Stage 3
Stage • Autoimmunity
 • Normoglycemia
 • Presymptomatic
 • Autoimmunity
 • Dysglycemia
 • Presymptomatic
 • New-onset hyperglycemia
 • Symptomatic
Diagnostic criteria • Multiple autoantibodies
 • No IGT or IFG
 • Multiple autoantibodies
 • Dysglycemia: IFG and/or IGT
 • FPG 100–125 mg/dL (5.6–6.9 mmol/L)
 • 2-h PG 140–199 mg/dL (7.8–11.0 mmol/L)
 • A1C 5.7–6.4% (39–47 mmol/mol) or ≥10% increase in A1C
 • Clinical symptoms
 • Diabetes by standard criteria