Table 2

Minimally adjusted linear regression of circumferential strain (Ecc, %) in relation to cardiovascular risk factors

CovariateEstimate of β ± SEP value
Basic model1
Age (per 10 years of age)0.26 ± 0.130.0498
Sex (female vs. male)−0.86 ± 0.18<0.0001
Cohort (primary vs. secondary intervention)−0.12 ± 0.180.4906
Minimally adjusted risk factor models2 (basic model + 1 covariate)
 Group (intensive vs. conventional)−0.18 ± 0.180.2997
 Smoking (yes vs. no)0.68 ± 0.270.0125
 BMI (kg/m2)0.08 ± 0.02<0.0001
 BMI ≥30 kg/m2 (yes vs. no)0.64 ± 0.190.0008
 Natural waist circumference (cm)0.03 ± 0.01<0.0001
 Mean systolic BP (mmHg)0.04 ± 0.010.0007
 Mean diastolic BP (mmHg)0.09 ± 0.02<0.0001
 Hypertension (yes vs. no)0.50 ± 0.180.0055
 Mean HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)−0.02 ± 0.010.0014
 Mean LDL cholesterol (mg/dL)0.01 ± 0.0040.0070
 Mean total cholesterol (mg/dL)0.01 ± 0.0040.0326
 Mean triglycerides (mg/dL)0.01 ± 0.002<0.0001
 Hypercholesterolemia (yes vs. no)0.21 ± 0.190.2808
 HbA1c (%)
  Before CMR0.28 ± 0.070.0002
  Mean during DCCT0.14 ± 0.070.0397
  Mean during the EDIC study0.37 ± 0.09<0.0001
  Mean during the DCCT/EDIC study0.38 ± 0.10<0.0001
 Metabolic syndrome (yes vs. no)0.81 ± 0.19<0.0001
 Sustained AER ≥30 μg/min or ESRD (yes vs. no)0.61 ± 0.220.0055
 Any PDR (yes vs. no)0.58 ± 0.240.0169
 AER ≥300 μg/min or ESRD (yes vs. no)0.69 ± 0.410.0915
 LV end-diastolic mass (g)0.004 ± 0.0040.2993
 LV end-diastolic mass/BSA0.001 ± 0.0080.8725
 Myocardial scar
  Any scar (ischemic or nonischemic) vs. none0.73 ± 0.430.0904
  Nonischemic vs. none1.32 ± 0.600.0274
  Ischemic vs. none0.14 ± 0.590.8156
  Nonischemic vs. ischemic1.18 ± 0.830.1544
  Normalized myocardial T1 (ms) (n = 200)−0.002 ± 0.0030.5515
  • Positive regression coefficients indicate a decrease in function because Ecc has a negative value. Normalized myocardial T1: postcontrast CMR-derived T1 times were normalized by gadolinium dose, glomerular filtration rate, and infusion-acquisition delay times. Lower values are related to higher diffuse fibrosis. AER, albumin excretion rate; BSA, body surface area; ESRD, end-stage renal disease; PDR, proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

  • 1Basic model was also adjusted for CMR machine type.

  • 2Minimally adjusted model, separate model for each covariate, was also adjusted for age, sex, primary vs. secondary cohort, and CMR machine type.